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Non-enzymatic glycation of melamine with sugars and sugar like compounds.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23247254     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) is employed in the manufacture of plastics, laminates and glues, yet, it has been found sometimes added illegally to dairy products to artificially inflate foods' protein content. In 2008, dairy products adulterated with melamine were blamed for the death of several infants in China, a situation that forced Beijing to introduce stricter food safety measures. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to investigate the susceptibility of the amine groups of melamine to glycation with d-galactose, d-glucose and lactose, sugars commonly found in milk, (2) to study the rate and extent of melamine's glycation with methylglyoxal, glyoxal and DL-glyceraldehyde, three highly reactive metabolites of d-galactose, d-glucose and lactose, and (3) to characterize, using mass spectrometry, the Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) of melamine with sugars found commonly in milk and their metabolites. Incubation of d-galactose, d-glucose and lactose with melamine revealed that d-galactose was the most potent glycator of melamine, followed by d-glucose, then lactose. Methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and DL-glyceraldehyde glycated melamine more extensively than d-galactose, with each yielding a broader range of AGEs. The non-enzymatic modification of melamine by sugars and sugar-like compounds warrants further investigation, as this process may influence melamine's toxicity in vivo.
Authors:
Weixi Liu; Menashi A Cohenford; Leslie Frost; Champika Seneviratne; Joel A Dain
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-9-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  Bioorganic chemistry     Volume:  46C     ISSN:  1090-2120     ISO Abbreviation:  Bioorg. Chem.     Publication Date:  2012 Sep 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-12-18     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  1303703     Medline TA:  Bioorg Chem     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  1-9     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Affiliation:
Department of Chemistry, University of RI, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. Electronic address: wliu@chm.uri.edu.
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