Document Detail

Nitric oxide and cardiac function.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17707439     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Nitric oxide (NO) participates in the control of contractility and heart rate, limits cardiac remodeling after an infarction and contributes to the protective effect of ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Low concentrations of NO, with production of small amounts of cGMP, inhibit phosphodiesterase III, thus preventing the hydrolysis of cAMP. The subsequent activation of a protein-kinase A causes the opening of sarcolemmal voltage-operated and sarcoplasmic ryanodin receptor Ca(2+) channels, thus increasing myocardial contractility. High concentrations of NO induce the production of larger amounts of cGMP which are responsible for a cardiodepression in response to an activation of protein kinase G (PKG) with blockade of sarcolemmal Ca(2+) channels. NO is also involved in reduced contractile response to adrenergic stimulation in heart failure. A reduction of heart rate is an evident effect of NO-synthase (NOS) inhibition. It is noteworthy that the direct effect of NOS inhibition can be altered if baroreceptors are stimulated by increases in blood pressure. Finally, NO can limit the deleterious effects of cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction possibly via the cGMP pathway. The protective effect of NO is mainly mediated by the guanylyl cyclase-cGMP pathway resulting in activation of PKG with opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels and inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pores. NO acting on heart is produced by vascular and endocardial endothelial NOS, as well as neuronal and inducible synthases. In particular, while in the basal control of contractility, endothelial synthase has a predominant role, the inducible isoform is mainly responsible for the cardiodepression in septic shock.
R Rastaldo; P Pagliaro; S Cappello; C Penna; D Mancardi; N Westerhof; G Losano
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2007-08-02
Journal Detail:
Title:  Life sciences     Volume:  81     ISSN:  0024-3205     ISO Abbreviation:  Life Sci.     Publication Date:  2007 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-09-04     Completed Date:  2007-10-18     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0375521     Medline TA:  Life Sci     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  779-93     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Neurosciences, Physiology Division, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
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MeSH Terms
Disease Models, Animal
Heart / physiology*
Heart Rate / physiology*
Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial*
Myocardial Contraction / physiology*
Nitric Oxide / physiology*
Reperfusion Injury / prevention & control
Ventricular Remodeling / physiology*
Reg. No./Substance:
10102-43-9/Nitric Oxide

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