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Nitric Oxide Synthase Genotype Modulation of Impulsivity and Ventral Striatal Activity in Adult ADHD Patients and Healthy Comparison Subjects.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21724667     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable disorder. The NOS1 gene encoding nitric oxide synthase is a candidate gene for ADHD and has been previously linked with impulsivity. In the present study, the authors investigated the effect of a functional variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in NOS1 (NOS1 exon 1f-VNTR) on the processing of rewards, one of the cognitive deficits in ADHD. Method: A sample of 136 participants, consisting of 87 adult ADHD patients and 49 healthy comparison subjects, completed a reward-related impulsivity task. A total of 104 participants also underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a reward anticipation task. The effect of the NOS1 exon 1f-VNTR genotype on reward-related impulsivity and reward-related ventral striatal activity was examined. Results: ADHD patients had higher impulsivity scores and lower ventral striatal activity than healthy comparison subjects. The association between the short allele and increased impulsivity was confirmed. However, independent of disease status, homozygous carriers of the short allele of NOS1, the ADHD risk genotype, demonstrated higher ventral striatal activity than carriers of the other NOS1 VNTR genotypes. Conclusions: The authors suggest that the NOS1 genotype influences impulsivity and its relation with ADHD is mediated through effects on this behavioral trait. Increased ventral striatal activity related to NOS1 may be compensatory for effects in other brain regions.
Martine Hoogman; Esther Aarts; Marcel Zwiers; Dorine Slaats-Willemse; Marlies Naber; Marten Onnink; Roshan Cools; Cornelis Kan; Jan Buitelaar; Barbara Franke
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-7-1
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of psychiatry     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1535-7228     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-7-4     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0370512     Medline TA:  Am J Psychiatry     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Departments of Psychiatry, Human Genetics, and Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; and the Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatric University Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
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