Document Detail


Nitrate reductase activity of bacteria in saliva of term and preterm infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22842223     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The salivary glands of adults concentrate nitrate from plasma into saliva where it is converted to nitrite by bacterial nitrate reductases. Nitrite can play a beneficial role in adult gastrointestinal and cardiovascular physiology. When nitrite is swallowed, some of it is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in the stomach and may then exert protective effects in the gastrointestinal tract and throughout the body. It has yet to be determined either when newborn infants acquire oral nitrate reducing bacteria or what the effects of antimicrobial therapy or premature birth may be on the bacterial processing of nitrate to nitrite. We measured nitrate and nitrite levels in the saliva of adults and both preterm and term human infants in the early weeks of life. We also measured oral bacterial reductase activity in the saliva of both infants and adults, and characterized the species of nitrate reducing bacteria present. Oral bacterial conversion of nitrate to nitrite in infants was either undetectable or markedly lower than the conversion rates of adults. No measurable reductase activity was found in infants within the first two weeks of life, despite the presence of oral nitrate reducing bacteria such as Actinomyces odontolyticus, Veillonella atypica, and Rothia mucilaginosa. We conclude that relatively little nitrite reaches the infant gastrointestinal tract due to the lack of oral bacterial nitrate reductase activity. Given the importance of the nitrate-nitrite-NO axis in adults, the lack of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria in infants may be relevant to the vulnerability of newborns to hypoxic stress and gastrointestinal tract pathologies.
Authors:
Jesica A Kanady; A Wilson Aruni; Janet R Ninnis; Andrew O Hopper; Jamie D Blood; Benjamin L Byrd; Leighton R Holley; Michael R Staker; Shandee Hutson; Hansel M Fletcher; Gordon G Power; Arlin B Blood
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-07-26
Journal Detail:
Title:  Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry / official journal of the Nitric Oxide Society     Volume:  27     ISSN:  1089-8611     ISO Abbreviation:  Nitric Oxide     Publication Date:  2012 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-08     Completed Date:  2013-06-26     Revised Date:  2013-12-05    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9709307     Medline TA:  Nitric Oxide     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  193-200     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Actinomyces / enzymology*
Adult
Aged
Bacteria / enzymology*
Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature / metabolism*
Male
Middle Aged
Mouth / microbiology
Nitrate Reductase / metabolism*
Nitrates / metabolism
Nitric Oxide / metabolism
Nitrites / metabolism
Saliva / chemistry,  microbiology*
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
DE-019730/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS; DE-18664/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS; HL095973/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; R01 DE013664/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS; R01 DE019730/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS; R01 DE022508/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS; R01 HL095973/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Bacterial Proteins; 0/Nitrates; 0/Nitrites; 31C4KY9ESH/Nitric Oxide; EC 1.7.99.4/Nitrate Reductase
Comments/Corrections

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