Document Detail

Nitrate and nitrite content of human, formula, bovine, and soy milks: implications for dietary nitrite and nitrate recommendations.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20958096     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Estimation of nitrate and nitrite concentrations of milk sources may provide insight into potential health risks and benefits of these food sources for infants, children, and adults. The World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive consumption of human milk for the first 6 months of life. Human milk is known to confer significant nutritional and immunological benefits for the infant. Consumption of formula, cow's, and soy milk may be used as alternatives to human milk for infants.
METHODS: We sought to estimate potential exposure to nitrate and nitrite in human, formula, bovine, and soy milk to inform total dietary exposure estimates and recommendations. Using sensitive quantitative methodologies, nitrite and nitrate were analyzed in different samples of milk.
RESULTS: Human milk concentrations of colostrum (expressed days 1-3 postpartum; n=12), transition milk (expressed days 3-7 postpartum; n=17), and mature milk (expressed >7 days postpartum; n=50) were 0.08 mg/100 mL nitrite and 0.19 mg/100 mL nitrate, 0.001 mg/100 mL nitrite and 0.52 mg/100 mL nitrate, and 0.001 mg/100 mL nitrite and 0.3 mg/100 mL nitrate, respectively, revealing that the absolute amounts of these anions change as the composition of milk changes. When expressed as a percentage of the World Health Organization's Acceptable Daily Intake limits, Silk® Soy Vanilla (WhiteWave Foods, Broomfield, CO) intake could result in high nitrate intakes (104% of this standard), while intake of Bright Beginnings Soy Pediatric® formula (PBM Nutritionals, Georgia, VT) could result in the highest nitrite intakes (383% of this standard).
CONCLUSIONS: The temporal relationship between the provision of nitrite in human milk and the development of commensal microbiota capable of reducing dietary nitrate to nitrite supports a hypothesis that humans are adapted to provide nitrite to the gastrointestinal tract from birth. These data support the hypothesis that the high concentrations of breastmilk nitrite and nitrate are evidence for a physiologic requirement to support gastrointestinal and immune homeostasis in the neonate.
Norman G Hord; Janine S Ghannam; Harsha K Garg; Pamela D Berens; Nathan S Bryan
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-10-19
Journal Detail:
Title:  Breastfeeding medicine : the official journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine     Volume:  6     ISSN:  1556-8342     ISO Abbreviation:  Breastfeed Med     Publication Date:  2011 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-12-02     Completed Date:  2012-03-29     Revised Date:  2013-07-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101260777     Medline TA:  Breastfeed Med     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  393-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Colostrum / chemistry
Guidelines as Topic
Infant Formula / chemistry*
Infant, Newborn
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Milk / chemistry*
Milk, Human / chemistry*
Nitrates / adverse effects,  analysis*
Nitrites / analysis*
Nutritional Requirements
Soy Milk / chemistry*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Nitrates; 0/Nitrites

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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