Document Detail

Nicotine in breast milk influences heart rate variability in the infant.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18498428     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
AIM: To study the effects of postnatal exposure to nicotine on the regulation of heart rate and blood pressure in infants. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight mother-infant pairs were studied. Twenty nonsmoking and 18 smoking (2-20 cigarettes per day) mothers were included. All infants were healthy, exclusively breastfed and their postnatal age was 6 weeks. During a home visit infant's urine and mothers' milk were sampled and concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were analyzed. Infants' electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded, sleep state documented and blood pressure during sleep was measured. Heart rate variability (HRV) was calculated with spectral analysis of R-R intervals. RESULTS: The smoking mothers exposed their infants to nicotine in milk with a median nicotine concentration of 47 (8-192) mug/L. Analysis of infants' urine showed that the nonsmoking group had 0.8 (0-5.2) and the smoke group 60 (17-139) mug cotinine/L (p < 0.01). The frequency domain low-to-high frequency (LF/HF) ratio, was correlated to milk nicotine concentrations in the milk sample, from smoking mothers. HRV decreased, with increasing milk nicotine, ingested by the boys (r =-0.74, p = 0.02) but not the girls (r =-0.13, p = 0.76). The differences of mean arterial pressure between sleep states in the infants, were significantly lower in the smoke group 5.8(6.8) compared to the nonsmoke group 11.5(7.2) mmHg (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Postnatal exposure to nicotine influences autonomic cardiovascular control in infants.
Anders Dahlström; Christina Ebersjö; Bo Lundell
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2008-05-22
Journal Detail:
Title:  Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992)     Volume:  97     ISSN:  0803-5253     ISO Abbreviation:  Acta Paediatr.     Publication Date:  2008 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-07-29     Completed Date:  2008-11-18     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9205968     Medline TA:  Acta Paediatr     Country:  Norway    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1075-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Section of Pediatrics, Stockholm, Sweden.
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MeSH Terms
Breast Feeding*
Cotinine / metabolism
Heart Rate / drug effects*
Infant, Newborn
Maternal Behavior
Milk, Human / drug effects*,  metabolism*
Nicotine / pharmacokinetics,  pharmacology*
Nicotinic Agonists / pharmacokinetics,  pharmacology*
Smoking / epidemiology*,  metabolism
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Nicotinic Agonists; 486-56-6/Cotinine; 54-11-5/Nicotine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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