Document Detail

Nicotine exposure in breastfed infants.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15244232     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
AIM: To study exposure to nicotine in breastfed infants in relation to parental smoking habits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty mother-infant pairs were studied. Twenty non-smoking mothers, 18 smoking (2-20 cigarettes per day) and two snuff-taking mothers were included. All infants were healthy, exclusively breastfed and their postnatal age was 6 wk. During a home visit, parental smoking habits were recorded, and the time of mothers' last smoke or taking of snuff and breastfeeding were recorded. Breast milk and infant urine samples were collected. Concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were analysed with gas chromatography. The amount of milk ingested during the home visit was calculated by weighing the infants. RESULTS: Two non-smoking and non-snuff-taking women had milk containing nicotine (28 and 13 microg/l, respectively). Both had smoking spouses. In the smoking and snuff-taking group, the mean (SD) milk nicotine concentration was 44 (38) microg/l (n = 36). When milk samples taken 7 h and 0.6 h after smoking were compared, the concentration of milk nicotine increased from 21 to 51 microg/l (p < 0.01). The two snuff-taking mothers exposed their children to higher milk nicotine concentrations than all but two of the smokers. The concentrations of the metabolite cotinine in infant urine correlated with the dose of nicotine ingested during the home visit (r = 0.84, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Breastfed infants with a smoking or snuff-taking mother are exposed to nicotine in breast milk. The mean intake of nicotine via milk is 7 microg/kg/d. With a shorter time between the mothers' smoking and breastfeeding, the milk nicotine concentration will increase. Both passive smoking at home and snuff-taking were associated with measurable nicotine levels in milk. Healthcare personnel promoting breastfeeding should be aware of these factors influencing exposure to nicotine in the breastfed infant.
A Dahlström; C Ebersjö; B Lundell
Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992)     Volume:  93     ISSN:  0803-5253     ISO Abbreviation:  Acta Paediatr.     Publication Date:  2004 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-07-12     Completed Date:  2004-09-21     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9205968     Medline TA:  Acta Paediatr     Country:  Norway    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  810-6     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Paediatrics at Stockholm Söder Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
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MeSH Terms
Cotinine / urine
Infant, Newborn
Milk, Human / chemistry*
Nicotine / metabolism*,  pharmacology
Tobacco, Smokeless / metabolism
Weight Gain / drug effects
Reg. No./Substance:
486-56-6/Cotinine; 54-11-5/Nicotine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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