Document Detail

Nicotine exposure among nondependent smokers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  2322084     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Most theories of dependence imply that repeated exposure to an addictive drug leads inexorably to dependence. We examined nicotine exposure in "tobacco chippers," who smoke regularly without developing dependence. Blood samples were obtained before and after 10 chippers (smoking up to 5 cigarettes per day) and 12 dependent smokers (20 to 40 cigarettes per day) smoked a cigarette. Chippers' blood nicotine levels increased significantly, in amounts equaling those of dependent smokers. Assays of cotinine (a long-lasting nicotine metabolite) also suggested that chippers' per-cigarette nicotine absorption equaled that of dependent smokers. Chippers' cotinine levels were also compared with those of heavy smokers (38 cigarettes per day) whose consumption was reduced to 5 cigarettes per day in a previously published study. The heavy smokers compensated by tripling their per-cigarette nicotine intake. Chippers did not seem to be compensating; their cotinine values equaled those expected when regular smokers were not compensating for reduced cigarette availability.
S Shiffman; L B Fischer; M Zettler-Segal; N L Benowitz
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Archives of general psychiatry     Volume:  47     ISSN:  0003-990X     ISO Abbreviation:  Arch. Gen. Psychiatry     Publication Date:  1990 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1990-04-30     Completed Date:  1990-04-30     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0372435     Medline TA:  Arch Gen Psychiatry     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  333-6     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pa.
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MeSH Terms
Cotinine / blood
Nicotine / blood,  pharmacokinetics*
Smoking / metabolism*
Tobacco Use Disorder / diagnosis,  metabolism*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
486-56-6/Cotinine; 54-11-5/Nicotine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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