Document Detail

Nicotinamide attenuates focal ischemic brain injury in rats: with special reference to changes in nicotinamide and NAD+ levels in ischemic core and penumbra.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12834263     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
We investigated the neuroprotective action of nicotinamide in focal ischemia. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (5-7 months old) were subjected to photothrombotic occlusion of the right distal middle cerebral artery (MCA). Either nicotinamide (125 or 250 mg/kg) or vehicle was injected i.v. before MCA occlusion. Changes in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) were monitored using laser-Doppler flowmetry, and infarct volumes were determined with TTC staining 3 days after MCA occlusion. In another set of experiments, the brain nicotinamide and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels were analyzed by HPLC using the frozen samples dissected from the regions corresponding to the ischemic core and penumbra. In the 250-mg/kg nicotinamide group, the ischemic CBF was significantly increased compared to that the untreated group, and the infarct volumes were substantially attenuated (-36%). On the other hand, the ischemic CBF in the 125 mg/kg nicotinamide group was not significantly different from the untreated CBF, however, the infarct volumes were substantially attenuated (-38%). Cerebral ischemia per se did not affect the concentrations of nicotinamide and NAD+ both in the penumbra and ischemic core. In the nicotinamide groups, the brain nicotinamide levels increased significantly in all areas examined, and brain NAD+ levels increased in the penumbra but not in the ischemic core. Increased brain levels of nicotinamide are considered to be primarily important for neuroprotection against ischemia, and the protective action may be partly mediated through the increased NAD+ in the penumbra.
Fumiko Sadanaga-Akiyoshi; Hiroshi Yao; Sei-ichi Tanuma; Tatsuo Nakahara; Jong Soon Hong; Setsuro Ibayashi; Hideyuki Uchimura; Masatoshi Fujishima
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Neurochemical research     Volume:  28     ISSN:  0364-3190     ISO Abbreviation:  Neurochem. Res.     Publication Date:  2003 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-07-01     Completed Date:  2003-09-03     Revised Date:  2003-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7613461     Medline TA:  Neurochem Res     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1227-34     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
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MeSH Terms
Brain / blood supply
Brain Ischemia / metabolism,  pathology,  prevention & control*
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
NAD / metabolism*
Niacinamide / metabolism,  pharmacology*
Rats, Inbred SHR
Regional Blood Flow
Reg. No./Substance:
53-84-9/NAD; 98-92-0/Niacinamide

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