Document Detail

New biologic immunosuppressive agents in transplantation.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  7881982     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Antigen-specific immunologic nonresponsiveness (tolerance) to alloantigens is a goal in transplantation. Most successful strategies of tolerance induction target the T cell. Activation of a quiescent T cell requires two different signals. Signal 1 is delivered when the T-cell receptor is engaged by foreign antigen presented by major histocompatibility complex molecules. Several potential pathways exist to deliver signal 2, which is also termed a costimulatory signal, although by far the best characterized pathway is through the T-cell co-receptor CD28. Blockade of either signal 1 or signal 2 may be sufficient to induce tolerance to alloantigens. Recent advances in knowledge of T-cell receptor-major histocompatibility complex interactions, in mechanisms of self-tolerance and in the identity and importance of costimulatory receptors and their ligands, have led to the development of various new strategies to block signals 1 and 2 using biologic agents. This review focuses on the most promising new modalities.
J Gratiot-Deans; L A Turka
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension     Volume:  3     ISSN:  1062-4821     ISO Abbreviation:  Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens.     Publication Date:  1994 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1995-04-13     Completed Date:  1995-04-13     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9303753     Medline TA:  Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  596-601     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-0676.
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MeSH Terms
Immune Tolerance
Immunosuppressive Agents* / pharmacology
Isoantigens / immunology
Lymphocyte Activation
Major Histocompatibility Complex / immunology
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / immunology
T-Lymphocytes / immunology
Transplantation Immunology*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Immunosuppressive Agents; 0/Isoantigens; 0/Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell

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