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A New Species of Graphis and New Lichen Records from Vietnam, Including a Second Worldwide Report of Sarcographina cyclospora.
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PMID:  24808729     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
Graphis upretii is a new lichen species discovered in Vietnam. The species is characterized by a loosely corticate, rough, whitish grey to greyish green thallus, elongate and irregularly branched lirellae with an apically thin complete thalline margin (negrosina morph), laterally carbonized, entire proper exciple, clear hymenium, hyaline, 16~20 transversely locular ascospores, and about 50~95 × 10~15 µm in size. In addition, members of the taxon produce norstictic and stictic acids. Currently, the lichen flora of Vietnam include Arthonia radiata, Brigantiaea tricolor, Coenogonium implexum, Dirina paradoxa, Herpothallon sipmanii, Pertusaria pertusa, and Sarcographina cyclospora.
Santosh Joshi; Udeni Jayalal; Soon-Ok Oh; Thi Thuy Nguyen; Nguyen Anh Dzung; Jae-Seoun Hur
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2014-03-31
Journal Detail:
Title:  Mycobiology     Volume:  42     ISSN:  1229-8093     ISO Abbreviation:  Mycobiology     Publication Date:  2014 Mar 
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Created Date:  2014-05-08     Completed Date:  2014-05-08     Revised Date:  2014-05-12    
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Nlm Unique ID:  100960027     Medline TA:  Mycobiology     Country:  Korea (South)    
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Languages:  eng     Pagination:  17-21     Citation Subset:  -    
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Journal ID (nlm-ta): Mycobiology
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): Mycobiology
Journal ID (publisher-id): MB
ISSN: 1229-8093
ISSN: 2092-9323
Publisher: The Korean Society of Mycology
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© The Korean Society of Mycology
Received Day: 04 Month: 11 Year: 2013
Revision Received Day: 23 Month: 1 Year: 2014
Accepted Day: 03 Month: 2 Year: 2014
Print publication date: Month: 3 Year: 2014
Electronic publication date: Day: 31 Month: 3 Year: 2014
Volume: 42 Issue: 1
First Page: 17 Last Page: 21
PubMed Id: 24808729
ID: 4004942
DOI: 10.5941/MYCO.2014.42.1.17

A New Species of Graphis and New Lichen Records from Vietnam, Including a Second Worldwide Report of Sarcographina cyclospora
Santosh Joshi1
Udeni Jayalal1
Soon-Ok Oh1
Thi Thuy Nguyen2
Nguyen Anh Dzung2
Jae-Seoun Hur13
1Korean Lichen Research Institute, Sunchon National University, Suncheon 540-950, Korea.
2Department of Basic Biology, Faculty of Natural Science and Technology, Tay Nguyen University, 567 Le Duan, Buon Ma Thuot, Vietnam.
3School of the Environment, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide 5001, South Australia.
Correspondence: Corresponding author:

The tropical rainforests of Vietnam have experienced extensive species migration from China, India-Himalaya, Malaysia-Indonesia, and other neighboring temperate regions because of its varied climate and topographic position. These rainforests are thus currently comprised of a wide variety of corticolous, lichenized acomycetes [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. During a recent visit to a central highland region of the country, several interesting lichenized fungi were encountered in the relatively shaded side of the vegetation belt and in semi-exposed isolated tree pastures.

A luxuriant diversity of Graphidaceae was noted and was previously recorded from different parts of the country [2, 3]. However, the genus Graphis has been less thoroughly studied and until recently was represented by only six species: Graphis caesiella Vain., G. dussii Vain., G. leptogramma Nyl., G. librata C. Knight, G. proserpens Vain., and G. rimulosa (Mont.) Trevis. In a more recent study on the Graphidaceae from the northern and central highlands of Vietnam, Joshi et al. [4] additionally recorded 11 Graphis species, namely G. caesiocarpa Redinger, G. cervinonigra Zahlbr., G. cycasicola A. W. Archer & Elix, G. epiphloea Zahlbr., G. handelii Zahlbr., G. japonica (Müll. Arg.) A. W. Archer & Lücking, G. renschiana (Müll. Arg.) Stizenb., G. schroederi Zahlbr., G. subserpentina Nyl., G. subvittata Adaw. & Makhija, and G. supracola A. W. Archer. This study describes a new species, G. upretii, which was recently discovered and collected from the Dak Lak Province of Vietnam. Superficially, the new taxon more closely resembles Diorygma or Platythecium, but it is distinguished as Graphis in having a whitish grey to greenish grey thallus, irregularly branched lirellae with complete thalline margin, a black and entire labia, a slit-like disc, and laterally carbonized proper exciple, as well as being transversely septate, possessing I+ blue ascospores, and a thallus that produces norstictic acid as the major lichen compound.


The material collected in April 2012 and 2013 from the northern and central highland areas of Vietnam, was deposited in the herbarium of the Korean Lichen Research Institute, South Korea (KoLRI) and subjected to morphoanatomical and chemical analyses. A Nikon SMZ-168 dissecting microscope (Nikon, Tokyo, Japan) was used for observation of morphological features, whereas the anatomical details were investigated under an Olympus BX-50 compound microscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan). Ten to fifteen apothecial sections were examined thoroughly for confirmation of the species. Thin, hand-cut sections were observed in water and lactophenol cotton blue solution. Additionally, Lugol's iodine (I) was applied to check the amyloidity of the ascus, ascospores, and interascal filaments. All measurements were made under higher magnifications of 40× and 1,000× prior to the application of KOH. Chemical analysis was conducted by using thin-layer chromatography (solvent systems C and A) and color spot tests as described by Orange et al. [7]. The relevant literature describing Graphidaceae [8, 9, 10, 11] was consulted for identification of the new taxon.

Taxonomic treatment of the species
G. upretii S. Joshi & Hur sp. nov. (Fig. 1A~1F)
Mycobank No.

MB 807869.

Similar to G. longispora, but differing in having a complete thalline margin, smaller ascospores, and a thallus that produces norstictic and stictic acids.


Vietnam, Dak Lak Province, Buon Ma Thuot City, Mt. Doi Sao, 12°40'31.8" N, 108°05'24.4" E, alt. c. 539 m, on tree bark, Oh & Thanh VN130043 (holotype KoLRI).


Thallus corticolous, epiperidermal, crustose, continuous, spread in patches up to 15 cm, loosely corticate, rough, rather delicate, crystalline, whitish grey, greenish grey or greyish white, ± dull, 100~200-µm thick in cross-section. Cortex poorly developed, 10~20-µm thick. Photobiont layer densely interspersed with calcium oxalate crystals, 70~90-µm thick. Crystalline layer more distinct below algal cells, 40~70-µm thick. Medulla endoperidermal, indistinct to absent; prothallus whitish.

Ascomata lirelliform, erumpent to prominent. Lirellae completely covered by thalline margin (10~12-µm thick apically), elongate and irregularly branched (negrosina morph), up to 3 cm long, with ends mostly acute to sub-acute. Labia entire, black, appearing greyish in the cross-section because of the thin cortex cover being absent from algal cells. Disc slit-like, epruinose, concealed. Thalline margin complete, sometimes flaking off and exposing black labia, laterally 80~95-µm thick. Proper exciple entire, laterally carbonized, convergent, apically 10 µm to laterally 60~90-µm thick. Epihymenium greyish, crystalline, 15~20-µm high. Hymenium hyaline, clear, 100~130-µm high, I-. Paraphyses simple, rather lax, apically granulate, ± conglutinate, 1~2-µm thick. Hypothecium hyaline, indistinct to 20-µm high, I-. Ascus clavate, 2~6-spored, 120~150 × 15~20 µm, I-. Ascospores hyaline, fusiform, clavate to ellipsoidal with rounded to sub-acute ends, transversely 15~19 septate, about 50~95 × 10~15 µm, locules lenticular, halo not seen, I+ violet to blue.


Thallus and medulla K+ yellow turning red, P+ yellow-orange, C-, KC-; norstictic (major) and stictic acids (trace) detected in thin-layer chromatography.


The specific epithet is named in honor of an eminent lichenologist, Dr. D. K. Upreti, from the CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Distribution and ecology

The type locality is situated in the central (or western) highlands (Tây Nguyên) of Vietnam, more toward neighboring Cambodia, in Mt. Doi Sao of Dak Lak Province. The region has many primitive forests growing on basalt soil and is conserved as a protected area. The new species was widely dispersed in large or small patches on thick tree bark in an evergreen forest and collected at a height of c. 1m from the tree base in semi-exposed or shaded conditions. The other taxa sharing similar microclimate at an elevation between 400~500 m belonged to Chiodecton, Pyrenula, and Diorygma, in addition to several associated members of foliicolous lichens.

The forest composition of Vietnam shares several characteristics (vegetation, climate, habitat, and distribution) with those of other southeast Asian countries and shows a greater affinity toward the Indo-Burman region. Hence, existence of the new species in lowland areas of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and the eastern part of India cannot be denied.


The new species is well characterized by whitish grey to greenish grey, loosely corticate thallus, lirellae with apically thin, complete thalline margin (negrosina morph) and entire labia, concealed disc, convergent, laterally carbonized proper exciple, transversely septate ascospores of about 50~95 × 10~15 µm, 2~6-spored asci, and the presence of norstictic and stictic acids as lichen substances.

G. upretii belongs to a group with taxonomic characteristics that include an entire labia, laterally carbonized excipulum, clear hymenium, and transversely septate ascospores. The organism closely resembles G. longispora D. D. Awasthi & S. R. Singh in having ± erumpent, elongate and irregularly branched lirellae, a thallus containing norstictic acid, and a similar geographical distribution (Indo-Burma region). However, the latter differs in having a thick, but lateral thalline margin, slightly larger ascospores reaching up to c. 130 µm in length, saxicolous habitat, and a thallus that produces salazinic acid in place of stictic acid [11, 12]. Another similar species of the group is G. salacinilongiramea Adaw. & Makhija, which has elongate and erumpent lirellae and long ascospores that are comparable to G. upretii, but is distinct in having a lateral thalline margin and produces salazinic acid together with stictic acid. G. ajarekarii Patw. & C. R. Kulk. is closely related to the new taxon in producing norstictic and stictic acids, and has lirellae with a concealed disc and epruinose labia, but differs markedly in having very small ascospores of 15~45 µm in size.

G. assamensis Nagarkar & Patw resembles G. upretii in having erumpent lirellae, complete thalline margin, concealed disc, non-pruinose labia, the presence of stictic acid in the thallus, and a similar geographical distribution, but differs in having a completely carbonized proper exciple, smaller ascospores of 45~70 µm, and a thallus that produces salazinic acid in addition to stictic acid.

G. verminosa Müll. Arg. shares some characteristics with G. upretii such as irregularly branched, erumpent lirellae covered by an apically thin complete thalline margin, laterally carbonized proper exciple, transversely septate ascospores, and the presence of norstictic acid in the thallus, but differs in having a striate labia and a thallus lacking stictic acid as an associated lichen compound.

The thin and complete thalline margin of the new taxon gives the appearance of a pruina, which differs in composition, being made up of a dead hyphae and crystals. However, in the cross-section of lirellae, a thin layer of cortex lacking algal cells reaching apically can easily be observed. The new taxon can easily be mistaken as the pruinose Carbacanthographis, but non-amyloid ascospores and spinulose periphysoids, which are characteristics of the latter, are absent in G. upretii.

Additional specimen examined

Vietnam, Dak Lak Province, Buon Ma Thuot City, Mt. Doi Sao, 12°40'31.8" N, 108°05'24.4" E, alt. 539 m, on tree bark, 19 Feb 2013, Oh & Thanh, VN130042 (KoLRI).

Arthonia radiata (Pers.) Ach. (Fig. 2A)

K. Vetensk-Acad. Nya Handl. 29: 131 (1808).


The corticolous species is characterized by a lichenized, 55 to 75-µm thick, pale grey to olive, immersed thallus delimited in patches; linear to aggregated, irregular to substellate ascomata of 1~1.5-mm diameter; flat to slightly convex, black, epruinose disc; brown or olive-brown, hyaline, clear and gelatinous I+ blue hymenium, up to 40-µm high; 8-spored, broadly clavate asci, 35~40 × 14~16 µm; hyaline to grey-brown, oblong-ovoid to oblong, transversely 3-septate, gelatinous, I- ascospores, 14~16 × 4~5 µm, and the absence of lichen substances. Arthonia radiata is widely distributed across Europe, North America, Asia, Africa, and New Zealand [13].

Specimen examined

Vietnam, Dak Lak Province, Buon Ma Thuot City, Museum, 12°40'32.2" N, 108°02'28.9" E, alt. 516 m, on tree trunk, 19 Feb 2013, Oh & Thanh, VN130048 (KoLRI).

Brigantiaea tricolor (Mont.) Trevis. (Fig. 2B)

Spighe Paglie: 9 (1853).


The species is characterized by a whitish grey to grey green, effuse, indistinctly sorediate thallus; sessile, round ascomata constricted at the base, 1~1.5 mm; disc brownish, plane, covered by ± yellow pruina, with prominent, shiny, reddish brown margin reacting K+ blue-violet; biatorine exciple; hyaline, clear to slightly inspersed hymenium, 120~130 µm; 1-spored asci, 90~100 × 30~45 µm; hyaline, ellipsoidal to oblong, muriform ascospores, 65~80 × 25~30 µm, and a thallus containing atranorin and zeorin as the major lichen compounds. B. leucoxantha R. Sant. & Hafellner differs from B. tricolor in having an orange ascomatal margin reacting K+ purple, and a disc containing yellow-orange pruina. B. tricolor is widely distributed in Africa, Australia, eastern and southern Asia, the Hawaiian Islands New Caledonia, and Papua New Guinea [14].

Specimens examined

Vietnam, Kon Tum Province, Kon Plong District, Mt. Kon Plong, PAK-SY waterfall, 14°35'46.1" N, 108°15'24.3" E, alt. 1,033 m, on dead tree branch, 21 Feb 2013, Oh & Thanh, VN130127 (KoLRI); Dak Lak Province: Yok Don National Park, 12°51'20.0" N, 107°45'58.1" E, alt. c. 760 m, on tree trunk, 22 Apr 2012, Hur & Oh, VN120228 (KoLRI).

Coenogonium implexum Nyl. (Fig. 2C)

Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., Ser. 4. 16: 92 (1862).


The species is characterized by filamentous (very densely woven filaments of Trentepohlia cells, 30~35 × 14~16 µm), pannose, ecorticate, yellow-green thallus, up to 50 mm; sessile and round ascomata, 0.18~0.2 × 0.5~1 mm; flat, yellow-orange; smooth cream-colored disc with a thin margin; hyaline, paraplectenchymatous proper exciple of radiating isodiametric hyphal cell rows, 40~70 µm; hyaline, clear hymenium reacting I+ blue to sordid green to reddish brown, 60~80 µm; 8-spored asci, 50~60 × 6~7 µm; hyaline, ellipsoid, 1-septate ascospores, 6~8 × 2~3 µm, and a lack of lichen compounds in the thallus. C. implexum is also distributed across the Neotropics, as well as in the eastern Palaeotropics [15].

Specimen examined

Vietnam, Vinh Phuc Province, Tam Dao National Park, 21°27'21.7" N, 105°39'0.8" E, alt. c. 1,092m, on tree trunk, 25 Apr 2012, Hur & Oh, VN120324 (KoLRI).

Dirina paradoxa (Fée) Tehler (Fig. 2D)

Lichenologist 18: 296 (1986).


The species is characterized by a whitish grey, greenish grey to greyish white, pruinose, rimose cracked, verrucose c. 100-µm thick thallus flaking off the substratum and exposing loose white medulla; solitary to aggregate, pluricarpocentral, discothecia, numerous, sessile, circular to distinctly undulate ascomata constricted at base, 0.5~2.5 mm; dark brown, thinly white prinose disc; entire to undulating thalline margin, 0.1~0.9 mm, thin to indistinct proper exciple; hyaline and inspersed hymenium, 80~100 µm; 8-spored, clavate asci, 75~90 µm; hyaline, fusiform (one end thick than other), transversely 3-septate ascospores, 20~23 × 4~6 µm, and the presence of erythrin, lecanoric acid, and a yellowish brown unknown substance in the thallus. The species has previously been reported in the coastal regions of the Caribbean, in the Bahamas, Netherland Antilles, Venezuela, and Trinidad [16].

Specimen examined

Vietnam, Dak Lak Province, Buon Ma Thuot City, Museum, 12°40'32.2" N, 108°02'28.9" E, alt. 516m, on tree trunk, 19 Feb 2013, Oh & Thanh, VN130046 (KoLRI).

Herpothallon sipmanii Aptroot, Lücking & Rivas Plata (Fig. 2E)

Bibl. Lichenol. 99: 64 (2009).


The species is characterized by a distinctly byssoid, pale mineral grey to green or whitish green thallus, ± firmly appressed to the substrate; compact brown hypothallus; a prothallus made up of radiating whitish hyphae; numerous, pale to off-white, flattened to slightly convex, disc-shaped (schizidia) outgrowths (pseudisidia) of round to wavy margin, up to 1 mm in diameter, and the presence of protocetraric and hypoprotocetraric acids. The species is distributed in Papua, New Guinea, the Philippines, and Thailand. For more details, see Aptroot et al. [17].

Specimen examined

Vietnam, Kon Tum Province, Sa Thay district, 14°41'48.9" N, 107°52'15.3" E, alt. 768 m, on tree trunk, 22 Feb 2013, Oh & Thanh, VN130040 (KoLRI).

Pertusaria pertusa (Weigel) Tuck. (Fig. 2F)

Enum. N. Am. Lich.: 56 (1845).


The species is characterized by a pale grey to greenish grey, ± shiny, smooth, wrinkled or warted thallus delimited by a brown line; semi-globose, crowded fertile warts constricted at the base, 1~2-mm in diameter; immersed, perithecioid apothecia, 1~5 per wart; punctiform, brownish disc; hyaline and clear hymenium, 300~400 µm; 2~4-spored asci; hyaline and simple ascospores, 100~140 × 35~40 µm, and a thallus containing norstictic and stictic acids. The species has been reported in Europe, Macaronesia, Africa, and Asia [18].

Specimen examined

Vietnam, Dak Lak Province, Yok Don National Park, 12°51'20" N, 107°45'58.1" E, alt. 760 m, on tree trunk, 22 Apr 2012, Hur & Oh, VN120223 (KoLRI).

Sarcographina cyclospora Müll. Arg. (Fig. 2G)

Flora Jena 70: 425 (2887).


The species is characterized by pale fawn, thin, smooth, glossy thallus; lirellate ascomata immersed in white, round to irregular stromata of 2~5 mm in diameter; thin, black, ± open lirellae in irregular stellate clusters; black disc covered by white pruina; non-carbonized, pale yellow to brownish proper exciple; hyaline and clear hymenium, 80~100 µm; 8-spored asci; pale brown to dark-brown, narrowly ellipsoidal, 2 × 2-locular, I- ascospores, 9~12 × 5~7 µm, and the presence of psoromic acid chemosyndrome. This is the second record of the species and has been previously reported only in Australia [8]. The collection of S. cyclospora from Vietnam increases the possible distribution of this species in other neighboring countries of tropics.

Specimens examined

Vietnam, Dak Lak Province, Buon Ma Thuot City, Chu Yang Sin National Park (waterfall), 12°29'00.1" N, 108°20'25.6" E, alt. 450 m, on dry rock (sandstone), 19 Feb 2013, Oh & Thanh, VN130022 (KoLRI); Chu Yang Sin National Park, 12°27'57.0" N, 108°20'34.9" E, alt. c. 780 m, on tree trunk, 21 Apr 2012, Hur & Oh, VN 120171 (KoLRI); Vinh Phuc Province, Tay Thien Mt., 21°27'53.3" N, 105°35'06.6" E, alt. c. 77 m, on tree trunk, 26 Apr 2012, Hur & Oh, VN120377, VN120381 (KoLRI).


This study was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (Grant #2011-0031494) and the Korea National Research Resource Center Program (NRF, 2012M3A9B8021726). Santosh Joshi expresses his gratitude to Dr. A. Aptroot for providing the lichen checklist of Vietnam and Jung-Shin Park for the help in preserving the study materials.

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Article Categories:
  • Research Article

Keywords: Corticolous, Dak Lak Province, Graphidaceae, Mt. Doi Sao, New species, Norstictic acid, Taxonomy.

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