Document Detail


Neutralization of Latrodectus mactans and L. hesperus venom by redback spider (L. hasseltii) antivenom.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11407496     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of L. hasseltii (redback spider) antivenom in neutralizing the lethal effects of L. hesperus and L. mactans (North American black widow) venoms. METHODS: LD50 values for the L. hesperus and L. mactans venom preparations were determined. A prospective, randomized, double-blind antivenom efficacy experiment was then performed for each venom using a mouse envenomation model. The following treatments were premixed and incubated at 25 degrees C for 1 hour prior to intraperitoneal injection: 1) saline control + protein control, 2) saline control + L. hasseltii antivenom, 3) L. hesperus or L. mactans venom + protein control, and 4) L. hesperus or L. mactans venom + L. hasseltii antivenom. The study endpoints were time elapsed until death and survival at 24 hours. RESULTS: The mouse LD50 values for L. hesperus and L. mactans venoms were 0.64 mg/kg and 0.26 mg/kg, respectively. In the efficacy trial, all mice in group 3 (L. hesperus or L. mactans venom and protein control) died. In both experiments, all mice in group 4 (L. hesperus or L. mactans venom + antivenom) survived (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to derive mouse LD50 values for L. hesperus and L. mactans venom obtained by electrical stimulation of live adult spiders. Redback spider antivenom is effective in neutralizing the lethal effects of L. hesperus and L. mactans venoms in a mouse envenomation model. While this study is limited by the optimized premixing of antigen with antibody, it generates the hypothesis that redback antivenom would be effective in the treatment of latrodectism in humans caused by the two clinically relevant species of North American widow spiders.
Authors:
F F Daly; R E Hill; G M Bogdan; R C Dart
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of toxicology. Clinical toxicology     Volume:  39     ISSN:  0731-3810     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol.     Publication Date:  2001  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-06-15     Completed Date:  2001-06-28     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8213460     Medline TA:  J Toxicol Clin Toxicol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  119-23     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Affiliation:
Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center-Denver Health Authority, Denver, Colorado, USA. frankdaly@hotmail.com
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Antivenins / administration & dosage*
Arachnidism / prevention & control*
Black Widow Spider*
Disease Models, Animal
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
Double-Blind Method
Female
Lethal Dose 50
Male
Mice
Random Allocation
Species Specificity
Spider Venoms / immunology*,  isolation & purification,  toxicity
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Antivenins; 0/Spider Venoms
Comments/Corrections
Comment In:
J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2001;39(2):125-7   [PMID:  11407497 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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