Document Detail

Neurotoxin localization to ectodermal gland cells uncovers an alternative mechanism of venom delivery in sea anemones.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22048953     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Jellyfish, hydras, corals and sea anemones (phylum Cnidaria) are known for their venomous stinging cells, nematocytes, used for prey and defence. Here we show, however, that the potent Type I neurotoxin of the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, Nv1, is confined to ectodermal gland cells rather than nematocytes. We demonstrate massive Nv1 secretion upon encounter with a crustacean prey. Concomitant discharge of nematocysts probably pierces the prey, expediting toxin penetration. Toxin efficiency in sea water is further demonstrated by the rapid paralysis of fish or crustacean larvae upon application of recombinant Nv1 into their medium. Analysis of other anemone species reveals that in Anthopleura elegantissima, Type I neurotoxins also appear in gland cells, whereas in the common species Anemonia viridis, Type I toxins are localized to both nematocytes and ectodermal gland cells. The nematocyte-based and gland cell-based envenomation mechanisms may reflect substantial differences in the ecology and feeding habits of sea anemone species. Overall, the immunolocalization of neurotoxins to gland cells changes the common view in the literature that sea anemone neurotoxins are produced and delivered only by stinging nematocytes, and raises the possibility that this toxin-secretion mechanism is an ancestral evolutionary state of the venom delivery machinery in sea anemones.
Yehu Moran; Grigory Genikhovich; Dalia Gordon; Stefanie Wienkoop; Claudia Zenkert; Suat Ozbek; Ulrich Technau; Michael Gurevitz
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2011-11-02
Journal Detail:
Title:  Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society     Volume:  279     ISSN:  1471-2954     ISO Abbreviation:  Proc. Biol. Sci.     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-02-27     Completed Date:  2012-07-10     Revised Date:  2014-04-21    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101245157     Medline TA:  Proc Biol Sci     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1351-8     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Biological Evolution
Cnidarian Venoms / genetics,  metabolism*,  toxicity
Neurotoxins / genetics,  metabolism*,  toxicity
Predatory Behavior
Recombinant Proteins / genetics,  metabolism,  toxicity
Sea Anemones / anatomy & histology,  genetics,  physiology*
Grant Support
P 21108-B17//Austrian Science Fund FWF
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Cnidarian Venoms; 0/Neurotoxins; 0/Recombinant Proteins

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