Document Detail


Neurotoxic and molecular effects of methylmercury in humans.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12875509     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Mercurials are global environmental pollutants deriving from natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Most human exposure to mercury occurs through the intake of fish, shellfish, and sea mammals contaminated with methylmercury. Methylmercury is bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the aquatic food chain and reaches its highest levels in top predatory fish. The neurotoxic hazard posed by methylmercury to humans and the unique susceptibility of the developing brain have been well documented following the mass poisonings occurring in Japan and Iraq. Adult cases of methylmercury poisoning are characterized by the delayed onset of symptoms and by the focal degeneration of neurons in selected brain regions (for example, cerebral cortex and cerebellum). Why the fetus displays different neuropathological effects and a higher sensitivity to methylmercury relative to the adult is still unknown. Depending on the degree of in utero exposure, methylmercury may result in effects ranging from fetal death to subtle neurodevelopmental delays. On the basis of epidemiological studies performed in populations having moderate chronic methylmercury exposure, no definitive consensus has been reached to date on the safety level of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Among the multiple mechanisms believed to contribute to methylmercury neurotoxicity, methylmercury-induced microtubule alterations, oxidative damage, impairment of calcium homeostasis, and the potentiation of glutamatergic neurotransmission are presented in this review.
Authors:
Anna F Castoldi; Teresa Coccini; Luigi Manzo
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Reviews on environmental health     Volume:  18     ISSN:  0048-7554     ISO Abbreviation:  Rev Environ Health     Publication Date:    2003 Jan-Mar
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-07-23     Completed Date:  2003-10-09     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0425754     Medline TA:  Rev Environ Health     Country:  Israel    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  19-31     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Toxicology Division, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation IRCCS, Institute of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. acastoldi@fsm.it
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Adult
Animals
Brain / drug effects*
Child
Female
Fetus / drug effects
Food Contamination*
Humans
Methylmercury Compounds / adverse effects*
Neurotoxins / adverse effects*
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Seafood / adverse effects*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Methylmercury Compounds; 0/Neurotoxins

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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