Document Detail

Neuronal chloride accumulation and excitatory GABA underlie aggravation of neonatal epileptiform activities by phenobarbital.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21436113     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Phenobarbital produces its anti-epileptic actions by increasing the inhibitory drive of γ-aminobutyric acid. However, following recurrent seizures, γ-aminobutyric acid excites neurons because of a persistent increase of chloride raising the important issue of whether phenobarbital could aggravate persistent seizures. Here we compared the actions of phenobarbital on initial and established ictal-like events in an in vitro model of mirror focus. Using the in vitro three-compartment chamber preparation with the two hippocampi and their commissural fibres placed in three different chambers, kainate was applied to one hippocampus and phenobarbital contralaterally, either after one ictal-like event or after many recurrent ictal-like events that produce an epileptogenic mirror focus. Field, perforated patch and single-channel recordings were used to determine the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid and their modulation by phenobarbital, and alterations of the chloride cotransporters were investigated using sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 1 and potassium chloride cotransporter 2 antagonists, potassium chloride cotransporter 2 immunocytochemistry and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 1 knockouts. Phenobarbital reduced initial ictal-like events and prevented the formation of a mirror focus when applied from the start. In contrast, phenobarbital aggravated epileptiform activities when applied after many ictal-like events by enhancing the excitatory actions of γ-aminobutyric acid due to increased chloride. The accumulation of chloride and the excitatory actions of γ-aminobutyric acid in mirror foci neurons are mediated by the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 1 chloride importer and by downregulation and internalization of the chloride-exporter potassium-chloride cotransporter 2. Finally, concomitant applications of the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 1 antagonist bumetanide and phenobarbital decreased excitatory actions of γ-aminobutyric acid and prevented its paradoxical actions on mirror focus. Therefore, the history of seizures prior to phenobarbital applications determines its effects and rapid treatment of severe potentially epileptogenic-neonatal seizures is recommended to prevent secondary epileptogenesis associated with potassium chloride cotransporter 2 downregulation and acquisition of the excitatory γ-aminobutyric acid phenotype.
Romain Nardou; Sumii Yamamoto; Geneviève Chazal; Asma Bhar; Nadine Ferrand; Olivier Dulac; Yehezkel Ben-Ari; Ilgam Khalilov
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2011-3-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Brain : a journal of neurology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1460-2156     ISO Abbreviation:  -     Publication Date:  2011 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-3-25     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0372537     Medline TA:  Brain     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
1 INSERM U-901, Marseille, 13009, France.
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