Document Detail


Neuron-glia signaling and the protection of axon function by Schwann cells.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20433601     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
The interaction between neurons and glial cells is a feature of all higher nervous systems. In the vertebrate peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells ensheath and myelinate axons thereby allowing rapid saltatory conduction and ensuring axonal integrity. Recently, some of the key molecules in neuron-Schwann cell signaling have been identified. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) type III presented on the axonal surface determines the myelination fate of axons and controls myelin sheath thickness. Recent observations suggest that NRG1 regulates myelination via the control of Schwann cell cholesterol biosynthesis. This concept is supported by the finding that high cholesterol levels in Schwann cells are a rate-limiting factor for myelin protein production and transport of the major myelin protein P0 from the endoplasmic reticulum into the growing myelin sheath. NRG1 type III activates ErbB receptors on the Schwann cell, which leads to an increase in intracellular PIP3 levels via the PI3-kinase pathway. Surprisingly, enforced elevation of PIP3 levels by inactivation of the phosphatase PTEN in developing and mature Schwann cells does not entirely mimic NRG1 type III stimulated myelin growth, but predominantly causes focal hypermyelination starting at Schmidt-Lanterman incisures and nodes of Ranvier. This indicates that the glial transduction of pro-myelinating signals has to be under tight and life-long control to preserve integrity of the myelinated axon. Understanding the cross talk between neurons and Schwann cells will help to further define the role of glia in preserving axonal integrity and to develop therapeutic strategies for peripheral neuropathies such as CMT1A.
Authors:
Susanne Quintes; Sandra Goebbels; Gesine Saher; Markus H Schwab; Klaus-Armin Nave
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS     Volume:  15     ISSN:  1529-8027     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst.     Publication Date:  2010 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-05-03     Completed Date:  2010-08-09     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9704532     Medline TA:  J Peripher Nerv Syst     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  10-6     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Göttingen, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Axons / physiology*
Models, Neurological
Neuroglia / physiology*
Neurons / physiology*
Schwann Cells / physiology*
Signal Transduction / physiology

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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