Document Detail


Neuroendocrine mediators in the modulation of phagocytosis by exercise: physiological implications.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  14686096     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Neuroendocrine mediation of the effects of exercise on macrophage and neutrophil phagocytosis, the organism's first line of defense against external aggression, is reviewed. Exercise modulates the immune system via the actions of "stress hormones". Although stress had long been regarded as generally immunosuppressive, it is now accepted that this is not always true. Indeed exercise-induced stress stimulates the "phagocytic process" of phagocytes. One of the new physiological interpretations emerging from recent studies is that the general stimulation of phagocytosis and other innate mechanisms during strenuous physical activity may counterbalance the decreased lymphoid activity, preventing the entry and survival of microorganisms in situations where the specific responses are depressed. In some cases this behaviour is also medicated by "stress hormones", unlike in lymphocytes in which glucocorticoids and catecholamines both are immunosuppressive. The mediatory role of glucocorticoids in macrophages may also differ between the non-specific functions, like chemotaxis and phagocytosis, and the more specific ones, like antigen-presentation. Neutrophils and monocytes may be stimulated by catecholamines or sympathetic signals, and variations in phagocytosis and catecholamines have been proposed as a good "neuroimmuno-endocrinological marker" in athletes. Other hormones (prolactin, GH, endorphins, thyroid hormones) in general also contribute to the effects of exercise-stress on phagocytosis. This review focuses on a physiological interpretation of the immune response to exercise which differs markedly from the classical immunosuppression-centered view. More studies on in vivo variations of stress hormones during exercise are needed.
Authors:
Eduardo Ortega
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Exercise immunology review     Volume:  9     ISSN:  1077-5552     ISO Abbreviation:  Exerc Immunol Rev     Publication Date:  2003  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-12-22     Completed Date:  2004-02-06     Revised Date:  2005-11-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9505535     Medline TA:  Exerc Immunol Rev     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  70-93     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, 06071-Badajoz, España. orincon@unex.es
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Catecholamines / physiology
Exercise / physiology*
Glucocorticoids / physiology
Growth Hormone / physiology
Humans
Macrophages / immunology
Neurosecretory Systems / physiology*
Neutrophils / immunology
Phagocytosis / physiology*
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Catecholamines; 0/Glucocorticoids; 9002-72-6/Growth Hormone

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