Document Detail

Neurobehavioral outcomes of infants exposed to MDMA (Ecstasy) and other recreational drugs during pregnancy.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22387807     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or "Ecstasy" is one of the most widely used illicit recreational drugs among young adults. MDMA is an indirect monoaminergic agonist and reuptake inhibitor that primarily affects the serotonin system. Preclinical studies in animals have found prenatal exposure related to neonatal tremors and long-term learning and memory impairments. To date, there are no prospective studies of the sequelae of prenatal exposure to MDMA in humans, despite concerns about its potential for harmful effects to the fetus. The present study is the first to prospectively identify MDMA-using women during pregnancy and to document patterns and correlates of use with neonatal and early infancy outcomes of offspring. All mothers and infants were prospectively recruited through the Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and University of East London (UEL) Drugs and Infancy Study (DAISY) that focused on recreational drug use in pregnant women. Women were interviewed about substance use prior to and during pregnancy and infants were seen at 1 and 4 months using standardized, normative assessments of neonatal behavior, and cognitive and motor development, including the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS), the Bayley Mental and Motor Development Scales (MDI, PDI), and the Alberta Infant Motor Scales (AIMS). The sample was primarily middle class with some university education and in stable partner relationships. The majority of women recruited had taken a number of illicit drugs prior to or during pregnancy. Group differences between those polydrug using women who had specifically used MDMA during pregnancy (n=28) and those who had not (n=68) were assessed using chi-square and t-tests. MDMA and other drug effects were assessed through multiple regression analyses controlling for confounding variables. Women who used MDMA during pregnancy had fewer prior births and more negative sequelae associated with their drug use, including more health, work, and social problems. MDMA exposed infants differed in sex ratio (more male births) and had poorer motor quality and lower milestone attainment at 4 months, with a dose-response relationship to amount of MDMA exposure. These findings suggest risk to the developing infant related to MDMA exposure and warrant continued follow-up to determine whether early motor delays persist or resolve.
Lynn T Singer; Derek G Moore; Sarah Fulton; Julia Goodwin; John J D Turner; Meeyoung O Min; Andrew C Parrott
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Date:  2012-03-03
Journal Detail:
Title:  Neurotoxicology and teratology     Volume:  34     ISSN:  1872-9738     ISO Abbreviation:  Neurotoxicol Teratol     Publication Date:    2012 May-Jun
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-06-04     Completed Date:  2012-10-22     Revised Date:  2014-03-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8709538     Medline TA:  Neurotoxicol Teratol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  303-10     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Gestational Age
Infant Behavior / drug effects*,  psychology
Infant, Newborn
N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine / toxicity*
Neuropsychological Tests
Pregnancy Outcome
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / chemically induced*,  psychology
Prospective Studies
Street Drugs / toxicity*
Grant Support
DA14910-05/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; R01 DA014910/DA/NIDA NIH HHS; R01 DA014910-01/DA/NIDA NIH HHS
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Street Drugs; KE1SEN21RM/N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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