Document Detail

Neural growth hormone implicated in body weight sex differences.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23861378     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
As for many human diseases, the incidence of obesity and its associated health risks are sexually dimorphic: worldwide the rate of obesity is higher in women. Sex differences in metabolism, appetite, body composition, and fat deposition are contributing biological factors. Gonadal hormones regulate the development of many sexually dimorphic traits in humans and animals, and, in addition, studies in mice indicate a role for direct genetic effects of sex chromosome dosage on body weight, deposition of fat, and circadian timing of feeding behavior. Specifically, mice of either sex with 2 X chromosomes, typical of normal females, have heavier body weights, gain more weight, and eat more food during the light portion of the day than mice of either sex with a single X chromosome. Here we test the effects of X chromosome dosage on body weight and report that gonadal females with 2 X chromosomes express higher levels of GH gene (Gh) mRNA in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus than females with 1 X chromosome and males. Furthermore, Gh expression in the POA of the hypothalamus of mice with 2 X chromosomes correlated with body weight; GH is known to have orexigenic properties. Acute infusion of GH into the POA increased immediate food intake in normal (XY) males. We propose that X inactivation-escaping genes modulate Gh expression and food intake, and this is part of the mechanism by which individuals with 2 X chromosomes are heavier than individuals with a single X chromosome.
Paul J Bonthuis; Emilie F Rissman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Date:  2013-07-16
Journal Detail:
Title:  Endocrinology     Volume:  154     ISSN:  1945-7170     ISO Abbreviation:  Endocrinology     Publication Date:  2013 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-09-23     Completed Date:  2013-11-25     Revised Date:  2014-10-09    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0375040     Medline TA:  Endocrinology     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  3826-35     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
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MeSH Terms
Appetite Regulation*
Chromosome Duplication
Gene Expression Regulation
Growth Hormone / administration & dosage,  genetics,  metabolism*
Histone Demethylases / genetics,  metabolism
Infusions, Intraventricular
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Mice, Inbred Strains
Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics,  metabolism*
Neurons / metabolism*
Obesity / genetics,  metabolism*
Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating / genetics,  metabolism
Preoptic Area / metabolism*
Recombination, Genetic
Sex Characteristics
Weight Gain*
X Chromosome
X Chromosome Inactivation
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Nerve Tissue Proteins; 9002-72-6/Growth Hormone; EC 1.14.11.-/Histone Demethylases; EC 1.14.11.-/Utx protein, mouse; EC 1.5.-/Kdm5c protein, mouse; EC 1.5.-/Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating

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