Document Detail

Naked corals: skeleton loss in Scleractinia.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  16754865     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Stony corals, which form the framework for modern reefs, are classified as Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, and Hexacorallia) in reference to their external aragonitic skeletons. However, persistent notions, collectively known as the "naked coral" hypothesis, hold that the scleractinian skeleton does not define a natural group. Three main lines of evidence have suggested that some stony corals are more closely related to one or more of the soft-bodied hexacorallian groups than they are to other scleractinians: (i) morphological similarities; (ii) lack of phylogenetic resolution in molecular analyses of scleractinians; and (iii) discrepancy between the commencement of a diverse scleractinian fossil record at 240 million years ago (Ma) and a molecule-based origination of at least 300 Ma. No molecular evidence has been able to clearly reveal relationships at the base of a well supported clade composed of scleractinian lineages and the nonskeletonized Corallimorpharia. We present complete mitochondrial genome data that provide strong evidence that one clade of scleractinians is more closely related to Corallimorpharia than it is to a another clade of scleractinians. Thus, the scleractinian skeleton, which we estimate to have originated between 240 and 288 Ma, was likely lost in the ancestry of Corallimorpharia. We estimate that Corallimorpharia originated between 110 and 132 Ma during the late- to mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with high levels of oceanic CO(2), which would have impacted aragonite solubility. Corallimorpharians escaped extinction from aragonite skeletal dissolution, but some modern stony corals may not have such fortunate fates under the pressure of increased anthropogenic CO(2) in the ocean.
Mónica Medina; Allen G Collins; Tori L Takaoka; Jennifer V Kuehl; Jeffrey L Boore
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Date:  2006-06-05
Journal Detail:
Title:  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America     Volume:  103     ISSN:  0027-8424     ISO Abbreviation:  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.     Publication Date:  2006 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2006-06-14     Completed Date:  2006-09-11     Revised Date:  2013-06-07    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7505876     Medline TA:  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  9096-100     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Evolutionary Genomics, Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA.
Data Bank Information
Bank Name/Acc. No.:
GENBANK/DQ640646;  DQ640647;  DQ640648;  DQ640649;  DQ640650;  DQ640651;  DQ643831;  DQ643832;  DQ643833;  DQ643834;  DQ643835;  DQ643836;  DQ643837;  DQ643838;  DQ643965;  DQ643966
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MeSH Terms
Anthozoa / anatomy & histology*,  classification,  genetics*
Calcium Carbonate / metabolism
DNA, Mitochondrial / analysis*
Evolution, Molecular
Molecular Sequence Data
Reg. No./Substance:
0/DNA, Mitochondrial; 471-34-1/Calcium Carbonate

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