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Myocardial preconditioning reduces kidney injury and apoptosis induced by myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  25475946     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury is a common and serious complication of cardiac surgery. Because its underlying mechanisms are unclear, there is no specific therapy to prevent or treat it. A regional transient ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) may provide protection to distant tissue or organs, a phenomenon known as remote preconditioning. In this study, we investigated whether myocardial preconditioning (MPC) would reduce kidney injury and apoptosis induced by myocardial I/R, as well as the mechanisms involved.
METHODS: Myocardial I/R was induced by a 40-min occlusion of the left anterior descending artery and a 3-h reperfusion in anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. MPC was elicited by two 10-min coronary artery occlusions and two 10-min reperfusions. A sham group received the same surgical procedures without coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion.
RESULTS: Compared with the sham group, myocardial I/R significantly increased the serum creatinine levels (1.15 ± 0.44 vs 0.54 ± 0.23 mg/dl, P < 0.05, mean ± standard deviation) and renal histological damage, indicating increased kidney injury. Kidney apoptosis was also significantly increased, as evidenced by the increase in the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end labelling (TUNEL)-positive nuclei, clear DNA laddering and increased caspase-3 activation. Serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly elevated, as were TNF-α levels in the kidneys. MPC significantly decreased myocardial infarct size (18.5 ± 3.1 vs 25.6 ± 2.1% of area at risk, P < 0.001). Additionally, MPC significantly reduced the serum creatinine level (0.65 ± 0.19 mg/dl, P < 0.05), renal histological damage and apoptosis. The increase in the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6, and of TNF-α in the kidneys, was significantly inhibited. Western blot analysis found that MPC significantly increased Bcl-2 and decreased Bax in the kidneys. Phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) was significantly increased. Haemodynamics, area at risk and mortality did not differ significantly among the groups.
CONCLUSIONS: MPC significantly reduces kidney injury and apoptosis induced by myocardial I/R. The underlying mechanisms might be related to inhibition of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis, possibly via inhibition of TNF-α production, modulation of Bcl-2 and Bax and activation of Akt and ERK1/2.
Authors:
Cheng-Hsiung Huang; Chang-Chi Lai; An-Han Yang; Shu-Chiung Chiang
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2014-12-4
Journal Detail:
Title:  European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1873-734X     ISO Abbreviation:  Eur J Cardiothorac Surg     Publication Date:  2014 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2014-12-5     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  2014-12-6    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8804069     Medline TA:  Eur J Cardiothorac Surg     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
© The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
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