Document Detail

Mycotoxins in the environment: II. Occurrence and origin in Swiss river waters.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23148526     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Thirty-three different mycotoxins were surveyed over nearly two years in a typical Swiss waste water treatment plant (WWTP), as well as in Swiss midland rivers. Out of these, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and beauvericin (BEA), were detected. DON was quantified in all WWTP effluent grab samples with a maximum concentration of 73.4 ng/L, while the lowest concentration was observed for BEA with 1.3 ng/L. NIV was detected in about 37%, the other three compounds in 9-36% of the weekly or fortnightly integrated flow proportional river water samples. Concentrations were river discharge dependent, with higher numbers in smaller rivers, but mostly in the very low ng/L-range, with a maximum of 24.1, and 19.0 ng/L for NIV and DON, respectively. While NIV and DON prevailed in summer and autumn, BEA occurred mostly during winter. Summer and autumn seasonal load fractions were, however, not correlating with other river basin parameters indicative of the probably most obvious seasonal input source, i.e. Fusarium graminearum infected wheat crop areas. Nevertheless, together with WWTP effluents, these two sources largely explained the loads of mycotoxins quantified in river waters. The ecotoxicological relevance of mycotoxins as newly identified aquatic micropollutants has yet to be assessed.
Judith Schenzel; Konrad Hungerbuehler; Thomas D Bucheli
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-11-13
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental science & technology     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1520-5851     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Sci. Technol.     Publication Date:  2012 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-14     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0213155     Medline TA:  Environ Sci Technol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
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