Document Detail

Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical applications.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  11731568     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
In eccentric exercise the contracting muscle is forcibly lengthened; in concentric exercise it shortens. While concentric contractions initiate movements, eccentric contractions slow or stop them. A unique feature of eccentric exercise is that untrained subjects become stiff and sore the day afterwards because of damage to muscle fibres. This review considers two possible initial events as responsible for the subsequent damage, damage to the excitation-contraction coupling system and disruption at the level of the sarcomeres. Other changes seen after eccentric exercise, a fall in active tension, shift in optimum length for active tension, and rise in passive tension, are seen, on balance, to favour sarcomere disruption as the starting point for the damage. As well as damage to muscle fibres there is evidence of disturbance of muscle sense organs and of proprioception. A second period of exercise, a week after the first, produces much less damage. This is the result of an adaptation process. One proposed mechanism for the adaptation is an increase in sarcomere number in muscle fibres. This leads to a secondary shift in the muscle's optimum length for active tension. The ability of muscle to rapidly adapt following the damage from eccentric exercise raises the possibility of clinical applications of mild eccentric exercise, such as for protecting a muscle against more major injuries.
U Proske; D L Morgan
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of physiology     Volume:  537     ISSN:  0022-3751     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Physiol. (Lond.)     Publication Date:  2001 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2001-12-03     Completed Date:  2002-02-11     Revised Date:  2013-06-09    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0266262     Medline TA:  J Physiol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  333-45     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Physiology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
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MeSH Terms
Adaptation, Physiological
Edema / etiology
Exercise / physiology*
Mechanoreceptors / physiology
Muscle Contraction / physiology
Muscle Spindles / physiology
Muscle, Skeletal / pathology*,  physiology*
Muscular Diseases / etiology
Pain / etiology

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