Document Detail

Muscle amino acid metabolism at rest and during exercise: role in human physiology and metabolism.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  9696993     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Six amino acids are metabolized in resting muscle. They are leucine, isoleucine, valine, asparagine, aspartate, and glutamate. These amino acids provide the amino groups and probably the ammonia required for synthesis of glutamine and alanine, which are released in excessive amounts in the postabsorptive state and during ingestion of a protein-containing meal. Only leucine and part of the isolecine molecule can be oxidized in muscle as they are converted to acetyl-CoA. The other carbon skeletons are used solely for de novo synthesis of TCA-cycle intermediates and glutamine. The carbon atoms of the released alanine originate primarily from glycolysis of blood glucose and from muscle glycogen (about half each in resting conditions). After consumption of a protein-containing meal, BCAA and glutamate are taken up by muscle and their carbon skeletons are used for de novo synthesis of glutamine. About half of the glutamine released from muscle originates from glutamate taken up from the blood, both after overnight starvation, after prolonged starvation, and after consumption of a mixed meal. Glutamine produced by muscle is an important fuel and regulator of DNA and RNA synthesis in mucosal cells and immune system cells, and fulfils several other important functions in human metabolism. The alanine aminotransferase reaction functions to establish and maintain high concentrations of TCA-cycle intermediates in muscle during the first 10 min of exercise. The increase in concentration of TCA-cycle intermediates probably is needed to increase the flux of the TCA-cycle and meet the increased energy demand of exercise. A gradual increase in leucine oxidation subsequently leads to a carbon drain on the TCA-cycle in glycogen-depleted muscles, and may thus reduce the maximal flux in the TCA-cycle and lead to fatigue. Deamination of amino acids and glutamine synthesis present alternative anaplerotic mechanisms in glycogen-depleted muscles, but only allow exercise at 40-50% of Wmax. One-leg exercise leads to the net breakdown of muscle protein. The liberated amino acids are used for synthesis of TCA-cycle intermediates and glutamine. Today, the importance of this process in endurance exercise in the field (running or cycling) in athletes who ingest carbohydrates is not clear. It is proposed that the maximal flux in the TCA-cycle is reduced in glycogen-depleted muscles due to insufficient TCA-cycle anaplerosis, and that this presents a limitation for the maximal rate of fatty acid oxidation. Interactions between the amino acid pool and the TCA-cycle are suggested to play a central role in the energy metabolism of the exercising muscle.
A J Wagenmakers
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Exercise and sport sciences reviews     Volume:  26     ISSN:  0091-6331     ISO Abbreviation:  Exerc Sport Sci Rev     Publication Date:  1998  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  1998-10-21     Completed Date:  1998-10-21     Revised Date:  2004-11-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0375434     Medline TA:  Exerc Sport Sci Rev     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  287-314     Citation Subset:  IM; S    
Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
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MeSH Terms
Adaptation, Physiological
Amino Acids / metabolism*
Dietary Carbohydrates / metabolism
Dietary Proteins / metabolism
Energy Metabolism / physiology*
Exercise / physiology*
Muscle Fatigue / physiology
Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*,  physiology
Rest / physiology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acids; 0/Dietary Carbohydrates; 0/Dietary Proteins

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