Document Detail


Multiple roles of the cytoskeleton in autophagy.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19659885     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Autophagy is involved in a wide range of physiological processes including cellular remodeling during development, immuno-protection against heterologous invaders and elimination of aberrant or obsolete cellular structures. This conserved degradation pathway also plays a key role in maintaining intracellular nutritional homeostasis and during starvation, for example, it is involved in the recycling of unnecessary cellular components to compensate for the limitation of nutrients. Autophagy is characterized by specific membrane rearrangements that culminate with the formation of large cytosolic double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes. Autophagosomes sequester cytoplasmic material that is destined for degradation. Once completed, these vesicles dock and fuse with endosomes and/or lysosomes to deliver their contents into the hydrolytically active lumen of the latter organelle where, together with their cargoes, they are broken down into their basic components. Specific structures destined for degradation via autophagy are in many cases selectively targeted and sequestered into autophagosomes. A number of factors required for autophagy have been identified, but numerous questions about the molecular mechanism of this pathway remain unanswered. For instance, it is unclear how membranes are recruited and assembled into autophagosomes. In addition, once completed, these vesicles are transported to cellular locations where endosomes and lysosomes are concentrated. The mechanism employed for this directed movement is not well understood. The cellular cytoskeleton is a large, highly dynamic cellular scaffold that has a crucial role in multiple processes, several of which involve membrane rearrangements and vesicle-mediated events. Relatively little is known about the roles of the cytoskeleton network in autophagy. Nevertheless, some recent studies have revealed the importance of cytoskeletal elements such as actin microfilaments and microtubules in specific aspects of autophagy. In this review, we will highlight the results of this work and discuss their implications, providing possible working models. In particular, we will first describe the findings obtained with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for long the leading organism for the study of autophagy, and, successively, those attained in mammalian cells, to emphasize possible differences between eukaryotic organisms.
Authors:
Iryna Monastyrska; Ester Rieter; Daniel J Klionsky; Fulvio Reggiori
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society     Volume:  84     ISSN:  1469-185X     ISO Abbreviation:  Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc     Publication Date:  2009 Aug 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-08-07     Completed Date:  2009-11-04     Revised Date:  2014-09-16    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0414576     Medline TA:  Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  431-48     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Autophagy / physiology*
Cytoskeleton / physiology*
Fungal Proteins / genetics,  metabolism
Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal / physiology
Saccharomyces cerevisiae / cytology*,  genetics,  metabolism
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
GM53396/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS; R01 GM053396/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS; R01 GM053396-20/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Fungal Proteins
Comments/Corrections

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