Document Detail

Multiple cenozoic invasions of Africa by penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21900330     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Africa hosts a single breeding species of penguin today, yet the fossil record indicates that a diverse array of now-extinct taxa once inhabited southern African coastlines. Here, we show that the African penguin fauna had a complex history involving multiple dispersals and extinctions. Phylogenetic analyses and biogeographic reconstructions incorporating new fossil material indicate that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the four Early Pliocene African penguin species do not represent an endemic radiation or direct ancestors of the living Spheniscus demersus (blackfooted penguin). A minimum of three dispersals to Africa, probably assisted by the eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar and South Atlantic currents, occurred during the Late Cenozoic. As regional sea-level fall eliminated islands and reduced offshore breeding areas during the Pliocene, all but one penguin lineage ended in extinction, resulting in today's depleted fauna.
Daniel T Ksepka; Daniel B Thomas
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Date:  2011-09-07
Journal Detail:
Title:  Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society     Volume:  279     ISSN:  1471-2954     ISO Abbreviation:  Proc. Biol. Sci.     Publication Date:  2012 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-01-26     Completed Date:  2012-10-02     Revised Date:  2013-06-27    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101245157     Medline TA:  Proc Biol Sci     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1027-32     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Animal Migration*
Extinction, Biological
Population Dynamics
Spheniscidae / classification,  physiology*
Water Movements

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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