Document Detail

Multinational impact of the 1968 Hong Kong influenza pandemic: evidence for a smoldering pandemic.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15962218     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: The first pandemic season of A/H3N2 influenza virus (1968/1969) resulted in significant mortality in the United States, but it was the second pandemic season of A/H3N2 influenza virus (1969/1970) that caused the majority of deaths in England. We further explored the global pattern of mortality caused by the pandemic during this period. METHODS: We estimated the influenza-related excess mortality in 6 countries (United States, Canada, England and Wales, France, Japan, and Australia) using national vital statistics by age for 1967-1978. Geographical and temporal pandemic patterns in mortality were compared with the genetic drift of the influenza viruses by analyzing hemagglutinin and neuraminidase sequences from GenBank. RESULTS: In North America, the majority of influenza-related deaths in 1968/1969 and 1969/1970 occurred during the first pandemic season (United States, 70%; Canada, 54%). Conversely, in Europe and Asia, the pattern was reversed: 70% of deaths occurred during the second pandemic season. The second pandemic season coincided with a drift in the neuraminidase antigen. CONCLUSION: We found a consistent pattern of mortality being delayed until the second pandemic season of A/H3N2 circulation in Europe and Asia. We hypothesize that this phenomenon may be explained by higher preexisting neuraminidase immunity (from the A/H2N2 era) in Europe and Asia than in North America, combined with a subsequent drift in the neuraminidase antigen during 1969/1970.
Cécile Viboud; Rebecca F Grais; Bernard A P Lafont; Mark A Miller; Lone Simonsen;
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.     Date:  2005-06-15
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of infectious diseases     Volume:  192     ISSN:  0022-1899     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Infect. Dis.     Publication Date:  2005 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2005-06-17     Completed Date:  2005-09-13     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0413675     Medline TA:  J Infect Dis     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  233-48     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Disease Outbreaks
Hong Kong / epidemiology
Influenza A virus* / classification
Influenza, Human / epidemiology*,  mortality
North America / epidemiology
United States / epidemiology
Comment In:
J Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 15;192(10):1858-60; author reply 1860-2   [PMID:  16235189 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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