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Multilevel regulation of steroid synthesis and metabolism in the bovine placenta.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22431389     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Steroid hormones play critical roles in almost all physiological processes in male and female reproduction. In a normal pregnancy, the concentrations of steroid hormones in maternal and foetal blood vary with gestation in response to changing needs. The placenta plays a central role in producing the appropriate steroids to support the pregnancy by coordinating its own steroidogenic activity with that of the corpus luteum and responding to foetal signals. Although much is known about the steroidogenic potential of the bovine placenta, far less is known about how the placenta integrates the synthesis of steroids with their subsequent metabolism and clearance to achieve appropriate local and peripheral concentrations of steroids in maternal and foetal blood at each stage of gestation. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the temporal and spatial regulation and compartmentalization of the biochemical pathways by which potent steroid hormones are synthesized and metabolized in the bovine placenta. The aim is to increase our understanding of how the balance of synthesis and metabolism determines placental steroid output as it changes with development and differentiation, and how this is regulated in response to the variations in the foetal signals and luteal secretory activity. The review highlights knowledge gaps and suggests that mathematical modelling can help understand the effect of different levels of regulation on the steroidogenic output of an organ, such as the bovine placenta. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 79: 239-254, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Authors:
Phuong T T Nguyen; Alan J Conley; Tanya K Soboleva; Rita S F Lee
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2012-01-23
Journal Detail:
Title:  Molecular reproduction and development     Volume:  79     ISSN:  1098-2795     ISO Abbreviation:  Mol. Reprod. Dev.     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-03-20     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8903333     Medline TA:  Mol Reprod Dev     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  239-54     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Affiliation:
Agresearch Limited, Ruakura Research Centre, Hamilton, New Zealand.
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