Document Detail

Motor contingency learning and infants with Spina Bifida.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23298791     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Infants with Spina Bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing infants (TD) using a conjugate reinforcement paradigm at 6 months-of-age (n = 98) to evaluate learning, and retention of a sensory-motor contingency. Analyses evaluated infant arm-waving rates at baseline (wrist not tethered to mobile), during acquisition of the sensory-motor contingency (wrist tethered), and immediately after the acquisition phase and then after a delay (wrist not tethered), controlling for arm reaching ability, gestational age, and socioeconomic status. Although both groups responded to the contingency with increased arm-waving from baseline to acquisition, 15% to 29% fewer infants with SB than TD were found to learn the contingency depending on the criterion used to determine contingency learning. In addition, infants with SB who had learned the contingency had more difficulty retaining the contingency over time when sensory feedback was absent. The findings suggest that infants with SB do not learn motor contingencies as easily or at the same rate as TD infants, and are more likely to decrease motor responses when sensory feedback is absent. Results are discussed with reference to research on contingency learning in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disorders, and with reference to motor learning in school-age children with SB.
Heather B Taylor; Marcia A Barnes; Susan H Landry; Paul Swank; Jack M Fletcher; Furong Huang
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Date:  2013-01-08
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS     Volume:  19     ISSN:  1469-7661     ISO Abbreviation:  J Int Neuropsychol Soc     Publication Date:  2013 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2013-02-08     Completed Date:  2013-11-19     Revised Date:  2014-06-25    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9503760     Medline TA:  J Int Neuropsychol Soc     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  206-15     Citation Subset:  IM    
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MeSH Terms
Arm / physiopathology
Child, Preschool
Developmental Disabilities / etiology*
Learning Disorders / etiology*
Longitudinal Studies
Movement / physiology*
Psychomotor Performance / physiology
Reaction Time
Reinforcement (Psychology)
Retention (Psychology)
Spinal Dysraphism / complications*,  pathology,  psychology
Wrist / innervation
Grant Support

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