Document Detail

Mortality and HIV transmission among male Vietnamese injection drug users.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21054619     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
AIMS: To estimate all-cause mortality rate and to assess predictors of all-cause mortality among injection drug users (IDUs) in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam between 2005 and 2007.
DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
SETTING: Community-dwelling IDUs were enrolled and followed at 3-month intervals for up to 2 years.
PARTICIPANTS: A total of 894 male IDUs (median age of 32 years, 22.8% HIV-positive, all having injected opioids).
MEASUREMENTS: Deaths were confirmed by family members and by reviewing government records. Marginal Cox proportional hazards models for clustered data were constructed to determine the independent predictors of all-cause mortality, using both fixed baseline measurements and time-dependent repeated measurements.
FINDINGS: During 710.1 person-years of follow-up, 45 (5.0%) drug injectors died. The causes of deaths were AIDS-related (14 cases, 31%), drug overdose (12, 27%), suicide (three, 7%), traffic accident (three, 7%), violence (two, 4%), pneumonia (two, 4%), non-traffic accident (one, 2%) and unknown causes (eight, 18%). The all-cause mortality rate was 6.3% (95% CI = 4.6-8.5) per 100 person-years. The standardized mortality ratio was 13.4. The HIV incidence rate was 5.2 (95% CI = 3.5-7.6) per 100 person-years. In multi-factorial analysis, HIV infection [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.9-6.3] and previous diagnosis of tuberculosis (HR = 10.0, 95% CI = 4.1-24.3) were associated significantly with increased hazard of death.
CONCLUSIONS: The all-cause, age- and sex-standardized mortality among Vietnamese IDUs is 13-fold higher than the general population and substantially higher than IDUs studied in developed countries. Effective prevention and control of HIV infection and tuberculosis are needed urgently.
Vu Minh Quan; Nguyen Le Minh; Tran Viet Ha; Nguyen Phuong Ngoc; Pham The Vu; David D Celentano; Tran Thi Mo; Vivian F Go
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural     Date:  2010-11-04
Journal Detail:
Title:  Addiction (Abingdon, England)     Volume:  106     ISSN:  1360-0443     ISO Abbreviation:  Addiction     Publication Date:  2011 Mar 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-02-08     Completed Date:  2011-05-25     Revised Date:  2014-09-19    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9304118     Medline TA:  Addiction     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  583-9     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
© 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
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MeSH Terms
Cause of Death
Child, Preschool
Drug Overdose / mortality
Epidemiologic Methods
HIV Infections / mortality*,  transmission
HIV Seropositivity / epidemiology
Opioid-Related Disorders / mortality*
Substance Abuse, Intravenous / mortality*
Tuberculosis / mortality
Vietnam / epidemiology
Grant Support

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