Document Detail

Morphometrical diagnosis of the malaria vectors Anopheles cruzii, An. homunculus and An. bellator.
Jump to Full Text
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23148743     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
BACKGROUND: Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii is a primary vector of Plasmodium parasites in Brazil's Atlantic Forest. Adult females of An. cruzii and An. homunculus, which is a secondary malaria vector, are morphologically similar and difficult to distinguish when using external morphological characteristics only. These two species may occur syntopically with An. bellator, which is also a potential vector of Plasmodium species and is morphologically similar to An. cruzii and An. homunculus. Identification of these species based on female specimens is often jeopardised by polymorphisms, overlapping morphological characteristics and damage caused to specimens during collection. Wing geometric morphometrics has been used to distinguish several insect species; however, this economical and powerful tool has not been applied to Kerteszia species. Our objective was to assess wing geometry to distinguish An. cruzii, An. homunculus and An. bellator.
METHODS: Specimens were collected in an area in the Serra do Mar hotspot biodiversity corridor of the Atlantic Forest biome (Cananeia municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil). The right wings of females of An. cruzii (n= 40), An. homunculus (n= 50) and An. bellator (n= 27) were photographed. For each individual, 18 wing landmarks were subjected to standard geometric morphometrics. Discriminant analysis of Procrustean coordinates was performed to quantify wing shape variation.
RESULTS: Individuals clustered into three distinct groups according to species with a slight overlap between representatives of An. cruzii and An. homunculus. The Mahalanobis distance between An. cruzii and An. homunculus was consistently lower (3.50) than that between An. cruzii and An. bellator (4.58) or An. homunculus and An. bellator (4.32). Pairwise cross-validated reclassification showed that geometric morphometrics is an effective analytical method to distinguish between An. bellator, An. cruzii and An. homunculus with a reliability rate varying between 78-88%. Shape analysis revealed that the wings of An. homunculus are narrower than those of An. cruzii and that An. bellator is different from both of the congeneric species.
CONCLUSION: It is possible to distinguish among the vectors An. cruzii, An. homunculus and An. bellator based on female wing characteristics.
Camila Lorenz; Tatiani Cristina Marques; Maria Anice Mureb Sallum; Lincoln Suesdek
Related Documents :
24172133 - Inference of the properties of the recombination process from whole bacterial genomes.
24791133 - Generalized dynamic factor models for mixed-measurement time series.
2341033 - The quantitative genetic consequences of pleiotropy under stabilizing and directional s...
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2012-11-13
Journal Detail:
Title:  Parasites & vectors     Volume:  5     ISSN:  1756-3305     ISO Abbreviation:  Parasit Vectors     Publication Date:  2012  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-12-04     Completed Date:  2013-03-04     Revised Date:  2013-07-11    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101462774     Medline TA:  Parasit Vectors     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  257     Citation Subset:  IM    
Programa de Pós-graduação-Mestrado em Ciências-Biologia da Relação Patógeno-Hospedeiro, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, 1500, 05509-300 São Paulo-SP, Brazil.
Export Citation:
APA/MLA Format     Download EndNote     Download BibTex
MeSH Terms
Anopheles / anatomy & histology*,  classification*
Biometry / methods*
Disease Vectors
Entomology / methods*
Wing / anatomy & histology

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

Full Text
Journal Information
Journal ID (nlm-ta): Parasit Vectors
Journal ID (iso-abbrev): Parasit Vectors
ISSN: 1756-3305
Publisher: BioMed Central
Article Information
Download PDF
Copyright ©2012 Lorenz et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Received Day: 12 Month: 6 Year: 2012
Accepted Day: 7 Month: 11 Year: 2012
collection publication date: Year: 2012
Electronic publication date: Day: 13 Month: 11 Year: 2012
Volume: 5First Page: 257 Last Page: 257
PubMed Id: 23148743
ID: 3514230
Publisher Id: 1756-3305-5-257
DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-257

Morphometrical diagnosis of the malaria vectors Anopheles cruzii, An. homunculus and An. bellator
Camila Lorenz1 Email:
Tatiani Cristina Marques2 Email:
Maria Anice Mureb Sallum2 Email:
Lincoln Suesdek13 Email:
1Programa de Pós-graduação (Mestrado) em Ciências (Biologia da Relação Patógeno-Hospedeiro), Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, 1500, 05509–300 São Paulo-SP, Brazil
2Departamento de Epidemiologia, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, 1500, 05509–300 São Paulo-SP, Brazil
3Laboratório de Parasitologia, Instituto Butantan, Avenida Vital Brasil, 1500, 05509–300 São Paulo-SP, Brazil


The genus Anopheles of the family Culicidae contains species that are widely distributed throughout South America [1]. These species are commonly associated with watercourses and forests, frequently in coastal areas. In Brazil, the primary anopheline species involved in Plasmodium transmission belong to two subgenera, i.e., Nyssorhynchus (Anopheles darlingi, An. aquasalis, An. nuneztovari s.l., An. oswaldoi, An. triannulatus s.l. and species of the An. albitarsis complex) [2,3] and Kerteszia (An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. homunculus) [4], with An. cruzii and An. darlingi as the primary vectors of Plasmodium species [5]. The autochthonous transmission of extra-Amazonian malaria occurs mainly in areas of the Southeastern coastal Serra do Mar mountain range, where An. cruzii is a primary vector [6]. Anopheles homunculus and An. bellator are also important secondary vectors of human Plasmodium in that region [7,8]. In this region, An. bellator, An. cruzii and An. homunculus occur in sympatry and are somewhat morphologically similar. Most Kerteszia species use bromeliad phytothelmata as larval habitats, with the exception of An. bambusicolus, whose habitat is water accumulated inside bamboo internodes [9].

According to Harrison et al.[10], the females of An. cruzii and An. homunculus can be distinguished by the scaling on maxillary palpomeres 3 and 4. In addition, Martins [11] showed that the integument of the abdominal terga in An. cruzii females are uniformly reddish or reddish with lighter portions, whereas the abdominal integument of An. homunculus are blackish with whitish areas. For larval differentiation, Lima [12] observed that the saddles of segment X are lightly sclerotised in An. cruzii, with either yellowish or reddish integument. By contrast, the larvae of An. homunculus have strongly pigmented saddles of segment X, with dark brown to blackish integument [13]. Anopheles bellator can be distinguished from An. cruzii and An. homunculus by the narrow apical pale bands on hind tarsomeres 2–4 (Figure 1), which are 30% or less of the length of the tarsomeres, and the typically entirely dark colouration of hind tarsomere 5; by contrast, hind tarsomeres 2–5 are 50% basal black and 50% apical pale in An. cruzii and An. homunculus[10]. The morphological identification of these species is often hampered by variability in the diagnostic characteristics and by damage to insect body parts caused by the capture procedure [13].

Recently published literature shows an increasing tendency towards assessing medically important insect species using geometric morphometrics [14-18], an analytical tool that allows for multivariate statistical descriptions of biological structures [19]. In insects, the wings are the main target for morphometrics because of their two-dimensional form and homologous vein patterns. In the present study, we used geometric morphometrics as a complementary and low-cost tool to identify vector species of the subgenus Kerteszia, focusing on three species that occur in areas of the coastal Atlantic Forest.

Biological sampling

All of the specimens were collected in an area of the Atlantic Forest biome in the municipality of Cananeia, State of São Paulo, Brazil, more specifically in the neighborhood of the Aroeira district (24°53’06” S / 47°51’01” W). Voucher specimens of An. cruzii and An. homunculus were deposited in the Coleção Entomológica de Referência, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo (FSP-USP), Brazil. Mosquito larvae and pupae were taken from water that had accumulated in bromeliad tanks in 2009 and reared in the laboratory until adult emergence under standard conditions of temperature, food availability and container size. Adult females of An. bellator were captured in July and November 2011 with Shannon traps and preserved in plastic vials with silica gel. Species were identified based on colour pattern of larvae, according to Lima [12].

Material preparation and data acquisition

The right wings of females of An. cruzii (n = 40), An. homunculus (n = 50) and An. bellator (n = 27) were removed from adults and cured before being mounted on microscope slides. The wings were soaked for 12 hours in a 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution at room temperature to remove the wing scales. The potassium hydroxide was removed by washing the wings in a 20% solution of acetic acid. The wings were dyed with acid fuchsin for 60 minutes and then dehydrated in a series of ethanol concentrations ranging from 80% to 98%. Images of the wings were captured using a Leica DFC320 digital camera coupled to a Leica S6 microscope with 40X magnification. Eighteen wing landmarks (Figure 2) of each individual were digitised using the TpsDig software V.1.40 (QSC - James Rohlf), and the coordinate images were plotted onto a Cartesian plane for geometric descriptions. All of the wings were scanned twice, and the repeatability of the digitising procedure was assessed using statistical tests [20,21]. The wing pictures were deposited in the CLIC Image Bank (

Geometric morphometrics analysis

The wing size was estimated using isometric measurements of the centroid size [15,22]. Generalised Procrustes analysis was performed to assess the wing shape. To describe the shape variation without the effects of allometry, a regression analysis was performed between the coordinates of the landmarks and the centroid size for each of the three species.

Discriminant analysis of the canonical variables was performed. To test the accuracy of species classification yielded by morphometrics, each individual was reclassified by comparing the shape with the overall mean wing size of each species using the Mahalanobis distances. The reclassification was cross-validated and the distances were estimated in discriminant axes in the absence of the individual to be classified. Thin-plate splines were obtained by regression of the canonical scores versus the shape components. The morphometric statistical analyses were conducted with the software TpsUtil 1.29, TpsRelw 1.39 (QSC - James Rohlf), MorphoJ 1.02 and Statistica 7.0. The graphics were generated using Statistica and MorphoJ 1.02.


The mean centroid size of An. cruzii was 1.62 mm (range 1.45 - 1.77 mm), that of An. homunculus was 1.71 mm (range 1.60 - 1.93 mm), and that of An. bellator was 1.59 mm (range 1.46 - 1.77 mm). Only the mean centroid size of An. homunculus (Figure 3) was significantly different from those obtained for the other two species (P<0.001; ANOVA + Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test). The allometric effect was low (5.47%) but statistically significant (P<0.0001) and was removed from the shape analyses. A second round of analyses were conducted, with the allometric effect included, however, the results were essentially similar.

The canonical variate analysis for the wing shape showed that individuals clustered into distinct groups in the morphospace according to each species (Figure 4). Anopheles bellator was found to be isolated from the other species, whereas An. cruzii and An. homunculus slightly overlapped. The Procrustes distance between these two species was lower (3.50) than between An. cruzii and An. bellator (4.58) or between An. homunculus and An. bellator (4.32). The accuracy scores after a cross-validated reclassification test ranged from 78% to 88% (Table 1).

Thin-plate splines with pairwise comparison of species evidenced higher displacement of certain landmarks that were more informative for species identification (Figure 5). The greatest distinction between An. bellator and An. cruzii was found with landmarks 1, 17 and 18, whereas the distinction between An. bellator and An. homunculus was most clear using landmarks 1, 2, 3, 17 and 18. The main shape differences when comparing An. cruzii and An. homunculus were observed in landmarks 1, 2, 3, 12 and 13.

We noted that distances between some most-influential landmarks were also conspicuously distinct between species: distance between landmarks 13–14 (distance x); 12–13 (distance y); 2–13 (distance z); and 15–18 (distance w). Ratios between those distances are depicted in Figure 6, which allow one to diagnose the species based on a single value. The mean ratio between dimensions x and y was 0.97 for An. cruzii, 0.94 for An. homunculus and 0.61 for An. bellator (Figure 7), with An. bellator being significantly different from the other species (T-test, P<0.0001). The z/w ratio was 0.72 for An. cruzii, 0.74 for An. bellator and 0.63 for An. homunculus, with An. homunculus being significantly different from the other species (T-test, P<0.0001) (Figure 8).


Adult females of An. homunculus and An. cruzii are morphologically similar; consequently, distinction between these species is generally problematic when using only the classical morphological characteristics described in identification keys [13]. The correct identification of species is essential for recognition of the vectors involved in the transmission of malaria and for helping researchers to develop control strategies [7]. Geometric morphometrics analyses revealed that An. homunculus, An. cruzii and An. bellator can be distinguished based on wing characteristics.

The results of the discriminant analysis showed that An. bellator is well separated from both An. cruzii and An. homunculus in the morphospace of the canonical variables. This finding is consistent with previous results indicating that An. bellator can be easily distinguished by the adult external morphology (hindtarsomere 5). However, one would expect higher phenotypic similarity between An. bellator and An. homunculus if the wing shape is directly associated with the close phylogenetic relationships between the species [23]. An. cruzii and An. homunculus, which are occasionally misidentified [9], were also discriminated despite partial overlapping in the morphospace of canonical variables.

The wing shape divergence among these three species was not as significant as that for species of the genera Culex and Aedes[16,24], which may be a result of recent diversification of the subgenera [23] or due to evolutionary constraints. The close evolutionary relationships among Kerteszia representatives might be reflected in the wing shape because of the heritability of this structure, as proposed for other insects [12]. Anopheles bellator and An. homunculus can coexist in bromeliads and compete for resources [25], and this close association could impose constraints or favour canalisation to the observed phenotype.

Considering that the results obtained either with or without allometry were similar, we conclude that size variation did not interfere with species delimitation. Anopheles homunculus had the largest size among species in this study; however, we cannot ascertain that this comparison holds in nature because size is commonly subject to plasticity [15,24,26]. At least for An. homunculus and An. cruzii, it is plausible to consider that the size disparity may be associated with genetic determinism because both species were collected in the larval stage and reared to adults in the laboratory under similar environmental conditions and food resource availability.

Specimen collections were not simultaneous (years 2009 and 2011), what could lead us to believe that interspecific wing shape divergency may be partly a result of asynchronic sampling and microevolutionary changes. This idea is unlikely because the three-year interval is much shorter than the divergence time among the Anopheles species involved [23]. It has recently been reported that wing shape variation in Aedes albopictus can occur within four years [27] however, such variation is slight in comparison to macroevolutionary changes. Additionally, phenetic distance between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus based on wing shape remained equivalent over several years [24].

In addition to helping taxonomists identify species, geometric morphometrics maybe used by health professionals to identify species in the future. This technique will not end up with other methods of identification, such as those based on the costal wing spots, but will complement them. Whereas present work was essentially based on wing landmarks, papers from Wilkerson and Peyton (1990) [28] and Motoki et al. (2009) [29] successfully used wing spot relative sizes to identify Anopheles species. Although it is not an easy task to simultaneously analyse landmarks and dark spots in Anopheles wings, we hope in a future to combine landmark and spot-based morphometrics, as suggested by Dujardin (personal communication: Jean Pierre Dujardin).

The mean ratio of dimensions x and y is 2/3 in An. bellator, whereas this ratio is nearly 1/1 in An. cruzii and An. homunculus. Remarkably, the length of segment 13–14 (distance x) in some individuals of An. bellator is so short that the segment is almost nonexistent. As far as we know, this vein pattern has not been observed in other culicids. Although the occasionally vestigial segment does not directly contribute to the diagnosis proposed here, it may be worth an investigation. As an example, the absence of a wing vein in Drosophila melanogaster was characterised as an informative mutation named crossveinless[30]. Additionally, the mean ratio z/w of An. homunculus was lower than those of the other two species. Accordingly, as shown in Figure 5, the wings of Anopheles homunculus are narrower anteroposteriorly.

Apart from the morphological characteristics used in this study, molecular taxonomic markers have been developed for Kerteszia species [13], facilitating species identification and delimitation. The employment of geometric morphometric methods in taxonomic studies is promising and should be performed in conjunction with other methods to facilitate the correct identification of anopheline species.


The results of this study have provided data that will help in the correct identification of Anopheles species. It is possible to distinguish among the vectors An. cruzii, An. homunculus and An. bellator based only on female wing characters.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they don’t have competing interests.

Authors' contributions

CL, MAMS and LS conceived the study, carried out data analysis and results interpretation. TCM collected data in the field. CL and LS written the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.


This investigation has financial support from the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, FAPESP (Grants no. 2011/20397-7; 2005/53973-0), CAPES (Grant no. 23038.005274/2011-24), and CNPq (BPP no. 301666/2011-3 to MAMS). CL is a master recipient of a CNPq scholarship no. 135207/2011-8.

Consoli RAGB,Lourenço-de-Oliveira R,Principais mosquitos de importância sanitária no BrasilYear: 1994Fiocruz: Rio de Janeiro: Brasil Press97114
Marrelli MT,Malafronte RS,Flores-Mendoza C,Lourenço-de-Oliveira R,Kloetzel JK,Marinotti O,Sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of 23 ribosomal DNA in Anopheles oswaldoi (Diptera: Culicidae)J Med EntomolYear: 19993667968410593066
Tadei WP,Dutary-Thatcher B,Malaria vectors in the Brazilian Amazon: Anopheles of the subgenus NyssorhynchusRev Inst Med TropYear: 200042879410.1590/S0036-46652000000200005
Ramirez CCL,Dessen EMB,Cytogenetic analysis of a natural population of Anopheles cruziiRev Bras GenYear: 1994174146
Ferreira SR,Luz N,Malária no estado do Paraná – Aspectos históricos e prognoseActa Biol ParYear: 200332129156
Arruda M,Carvalho MB,Nussenzweig RS,Maracic M,Ferreira AW,Cochrane AH,Potential vectores of malaria and their different susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in northern Brazil identified by immunoassayAmJTrop Med HygYear: 198635873881
Forattini OP,Culicidologia MédicaYear: 2002São Paulo: Editora da Universidade de São Paulo Press
Rezende HR,Junior CC,dos Santos CB,Aspectos atuais da distribuição demográfica de Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii Dyar & Knab (1908) no Estado do Espírito Santo, BrasilEntomologia y VectoresYear: 20051212312610.1590/S0328-03812005000100011
Sallum MAM,Urbinatti PR,Malafronte RS,Resende HR,Cerutti-Junior C,Natal D,Primeiro registro de Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus Komp (Diptera, Culicidae) no Estado do Espírito Santo, BrasilRev Bras EntomolYear: 20085267167310.1590/S0085-56262008000400021
Harrison BA,Ruiz-Lopez F,Falero GC,Savage HM,Pecor JE,Wilkerson RC,Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus (Diptera: Culicidae), not the malaria vector we thought it was: Revised male and female morphology; larva, pupa and male genitalia characters; and molecular verificationZootaxaYear: 20123228117
Martins CM,Do diagnóstico diferencial específico entre o Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii e o Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus pelos caracteres dos adultos fêmeas (Diptera, Culicidae)Rev Bras Malario e D TropYear: 195810429430
Lima MM,Do diagnóstico diferencial entre o Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii e o Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus na fase larváriaRev Bras Malario e D TropYear: 19524401411
Calado DC,Navarro-Silva MA,Identificação de Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii Dyar & Knab e Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus Komp (Diptera, Culicidae, Anophelinae) através de marcadores moleculares (RAPD e RFLP)Rev Bras EntomolYear: 20052211271133
Jirakanjanakit N,Dujardin JP,Discrimination of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory lines based on wing geometryTrop Med Public HealthYear: 200536858861
Dujardin JP,Morphometrics applied to medical entomologyInfect Genet EvolYear: 2008887589010.1016/j.meegid.2008.07.01118832048
Vidal PO,Rocha LS,Peruzin MC,Wing diagnostic characters for mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex nigripalpus (Diptera; Culicidae)Rev Bras EntomolYear: 20115513413710.1590/S0085-56262011000100022
Dujardin JP,Le Pont F,Geographic variation of metric properties within the neotropical sandfliesInfect Genet EvolYear: 2004435335910.1016/j.meegid.2004.05.00115374533
Motoki MT,Suesdek L,Bergo ES,Sallum MAM,Wing geometry of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) in five major Brazilian ecoregionsInfect Genet EvolYear: 2012 in press.
Monteiro LR,Reis SF,Princípios de morfometria geométricaYear: 1999Ribeirão Preto: Holos Press52106
ASQC / AIAGFundamental statistical process control reference manualYear: 1991Troy: MI: AIAG Press103117
Arnqvist G,Mårtensson T,Measurement error in geometric morphometrics: empirical strategies to assess and reduce its impact on measure of shapeActa ZoolYear: 1998447396
Rohlf FJ,Shape statistics: Procrustes superimpositions and tangent spacesJ ClassifYear: 19991619722310.1007/s003579900054
Colucci E,Sallum MAM,Phylogenetic analysis of the subgenus Kerteszia of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae: Anophelinae) based on morphological charactersInsect System EvolYear: 20033372373
Henry A,Thongsripong P,Fonseca-Gonzalez I,Jaramillo-Ocampo N,Dujardin JP,Wing shape of dengue vectors from around the worldInfect Genet EvolYear: 20101020721410.1016/j.meegid.2009.12.00120026429
Pittendrigh CS,The Ecotopic Specialization of Anopheles homunculus and Its Relation to Competition with A. bellatorEvolutionYear: 194946478
Hernández ML,Abrahan LB,Dujardin JP,Gorla DE,Catalá SS,Phenotypic variability and population structure of Peridomestic Triatoma infestans in rural areas of the Arid Chaco (Western Argentina): spatial influence of Macro- and MicrohabitatsVector Borne Zoonotic DisYear: 20115503513
Vidal PO,Carvalho E,Suesdek L,Temporal variation on wing geometry of Aedes albopictusMem Inst Oswaldo CruzYear: 2012 in press.
Wilkerson RC,Peyton EL,Standardized nomenclature for the costal wing spots of the Genus Anopheles and other spotted-wing mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)J Med EntomolYear: 199027207224
Motoki MT,Wilkerson RC,Sallum MAM,The Anopheles albitarsis complex with the recognition of Anopheles oryzalimnetes Wilkerson and Motoki, n. sp. and Anopheles janconnae Wilkerson and Sallum, n. sp. (Diptera: Culicidae)Mem Inst Oswaldo CruzYear: 200910482385010.1590/S0074-0276200900060000419876554
Bridges CB,The mutant crossveinless in Drosophila melanogasterProc Natl Acad Sci USAYear: 19206066066310.1073/pnas.6.11.660


[Figure ID: F1]
Figure 1 

Morphological differentiation of 5th posterior tarsomere visualized in adults of An. cruzii (a) and An. bellator (b).

[Figure ID: F2]
Figure 2 

(a) Wing of female Anopheles bellator colored with acid fuchsin showing the 18 landmarks selected for geometric morphometrics. (b) Diagram of immaginary links between landmarks used to depict wing consensus.

[Figure ID: F3]
Figure 3 

Descriptive statistics of centroid sizes (in mm).

[Figure ID: F4]
Figure 4 

Morphological space of canonical variates resulting from comparison among the three species.

[Figure ID: F5]
Figure 5 

Pairwise comparison of thin plate spline between species. Landmarks displacement correspond to extreme of differentiation in each species. (a) An. cruzii (gray) and An. bellator (black); (b) An. bellator (black) and An. homunculus (gray) and (c) An. homunculus (gray) and An. cruzii (black).

[Figure ID: F6]
Figure 6 

Graphical presentation of the distance between landmarks used for ratios x/y and z/w.

[Figure ID: F7]
Figure 7 

Descriptive statistics of ratio x/y (in mm).

[Figure ID: F8]
Figure 8 

Descriptive statistics of ratio z/w (in mm).

[TableWrap ID: T1] Table 1 

Validated reclassification accuracies of each species derived from the three pairwise comparisons

Compared species Reclassification scores
An. cruzii
An. homunculus
An. cruzii
An. bellator
An. homunculus
An. bellator 84%

Article Categories:
  • Research

Keywords: Culicidae, Kerteszia, Wing geometric morphometrics, Identification, Malaria vectors, Atlantic Forest.

Previous Document:  Parameter variability and distributional assumptions in the diffusion model.
Next Document:  Presumptive bacterial translocation in horses with strangulating small intestinal lesions requiring ...