Document Detail

Morphogenesis of the thyroid gland.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20026174     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Congenital hypothyroidism is mainly due to structural defects of the thyroid gland, collectively known as thyroid dysgenesis. The two most prevalent forms of this condition are abnormal localization of differentiated thyroid tissue (thyroid ectopia) and total absence of the gland (athyreosis). The clinical picture of thyroid dysgenesis suggests that impaired specification, proliferation and survival of thyroid precursor cells and loss of concerted movement of these cells in a distinct spatiotemporal pattern are major causes of malformation. In normal development the thyroid primordium is first distinguished as a thickening of the anterior foregut endoderm at the base of the prospective tongue. Subsequently, this group of progenitors detaches from the endoderm, moves caudally and ultimately differentiates into hormone-producing units, the thyroid follicles, at a distant location from the site of specification. In higher vertebrates later stages of thyroid morphogenesis are characterized by shape remodeling into a bilobed organ and the integration of a second type of progenitors derived from the caudal-most pharyngeal pouches that will differentiate into C-cells. The present knowledge of thyroid developmental dynamics has emerged from embryonic studies mainly in chicken, mouse and more recently also in zebrafish. This review will highlight the key morphogenetic steps of thyroid organogenesis and pinpoint which crucial regulatory mechanisms are yet to be uncovered. Considering the co-incidence of thyroid dysgenesis and congenital heart malformations the possible interactions between thyroid and cardiovascular development will also be discussed.
Henrik Fagman; Mikael Nilsson
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2009-12-21
Journal Detail:
Title:  Molecular and cellular endocrinology     Volume:  323     ISSN:  1872-8057     ISO Abbreviation:  Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.     Publication Date:  2010 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-05-20     Completed Date:  2010-08-20     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7500844     Medline TA:  Mol Cell Endocrinol     Country:  Ireland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  35-54     Citation Subset:  IM    
Istituto di Ricerche Genetiche "Gaetano Salvatore" (IRGS), Biogem scarl.,Via Camporeale, 830 31 Ariano Irpino, Italy. <>
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MeSH Terms
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / genetics,  physiology
Chick Embryo
Congenital Hypothyroidism / physiopathology*
Fibroblast Growth Factors / genetics,  physiology
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / physiology
Heart Defects, Congenital / physiopathology
Morphogenesis / genetics,  physiology*
Neural Crest / abnormalities*,  growth & development*
Organ Size / genetics,  physiology
Thyroid Dysgenesis / genetics,  physiopathology*
Thyroid Gland / abnormalities,  embryology*
Transcription Factors / genetics,  physiology
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0/Transcription Factors; 62031-54-3/Fibroblast Growth Factors

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