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More than one century of schizophrenia: an evolving perspective.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23197119     Owner:  NLM     Status:  In-Data-Review    
ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a very complex psychiatric disorder of unknown etiology, and there is controversy as to whether its name is even appropriate to describe the associated variety of clinical presentations and symptoms. Currently, the diagnosis is essentially based on clinical criteria. These enable a clinical profile to be recognized as encompassing positive symptoms, negative symptoms, disorganization of thinking and behavior, cognitive impairment, mood abnormalities, motor abnormalities, chronic clinical course, and incomplete remissions. The concept has evolved during the past century, and schizophrenia is currently questioned as a single disease entity. Established diagnostic criteria do not mirror the heterogeneity of the disorder. A strategy to deal with clinical heterogeneity in schizophrenia is, perhaps, the adoption of a classification system based on dimensions and stages. An additional strategy to deal with etiological and pathophysiological heterogeneity is to try to identify biomarkers, namely, on the basis of intermediate phenotypes. Despite extensive biological research, the biomarkers for schizophrenia are still lacking.
Celeste Silveira; João Marques-Teixeira; António José de Bastos-Leite
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of nervous and mental disease     Volume:  200     ISSN:  1539-736X     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.     Publication Date:  2012 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-11-30     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0375402     Medline TA:  J Nerv Ment Dis     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1054-7     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
*Department of Psychiatry, Hospital de São João, Porto, Portugal; †Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health, Faculty of Medicine; ‡Laboratory of Psychophysiology, Faculty of Psychology and Education Science; and §Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
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