Document Detail

Monoamine releasers with varying selectivity for dopamine/norepinephrine versus serotonin release as candidate "agonist" medications for cocaine dependence: studies in assays of cocaine discrimination and cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  17071819     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Monoamine releasers constitute one class of drugs under investigation as candidate medications for the treatment of cocaine abuse. Promising preclinical and clinical results have been obtained with amphetamine, which has high selectivity for releasing dopamine/norepinephrine versus serotonin. However, use of amphetamine as a pharmacotherapy is complicated by its high abuse potential. Recent preclinical studies suggest that nonselective monoamine releasers or serotonin-selective releasers have lower abuse liability and may warrant evaluation as alternatives to amphetamine. To address this issue, the present study evaluated the effects of five monoamine releasers in assays of cocaine discrimination and cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. The releasers varied along a continuum from dopamine/norepinephrine-selective to serotonin-selective [m-fluoroamphetamine (PAL-353), methamphetamine, m-methylamphetamine (PAL-314), 1-napthyl-2-aminopropane (PAL-287), fenfluramine]. In drug discrimination studies, rhesus monkeys were trained to discriminate saline from cocaine (0.4 mg/kg i.m.) in a two-key, food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Substitution for cocaine was positively associated with selectivity for dopamine/norepinephrine versus serotonin release. In drug self-administration studies, rhesus monkeys responded for cocaine (0.01 and 0.032 mg/kg/injection) and food (1-g pellets) under a second-order fixed-ratio 2 (variable-ratio 16:S) schedule. In general, monoamine releasers produced dose-dependent and sustained decreases in cocaine self-administration. However, the dopamine/norepinephrine-selective releasers decreased cocaine self-administration with minimal effects on food-maintained responding, whereas the more serotonin-selective releasers produced nonselective reductions in both cocaine- and food-maintained responding. These results are consistent with the conclusion that dopamine/norepinephrine-selective releasers retain cocaine-like abuse-related effects but may also be capable of producing relatively selective reductions in the reinforcing effects of cocaine.
S S Negus; N K Mello; B E Blough; M H Baumann; R B Rothman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural     Date:  2006-10-27
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics     Volume:  320     ISSN:  0022-3565     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.     Publication Date:  2007 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2007-01-22     Completed Date:  2007-03-13     Revised Date:  2007-12-03    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0376362     Medline TA:  J Pharmacol Exp Ther     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  627-36     Citation Subset:  IM    
Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478-9106, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Cocaine / administration & dosage*
Cocaine-Related Disorders / drug therapy*
Discrimination Learning / drug effects*
Dopamine / secretion*
Macaca mulatta
Norepinephrine / secretion*
Reinforcement (Psychology)
Self Administration
Serotonin / secretion*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
50-36-2/Cocaine; 50-67-9/Serotonin; 51-41-2/Norepinephrine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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