Document Detail

Monitoring adherence to the international code of conduct: highly hazardous pesticides in central Andean agriculture and farmers' rights to health.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  19650580     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The WHO has advocated monitoring adherence to the Food and Agriculture Organization's Code of Conduct to reduce use of highly hazardous pesticides in lower and middle income countries. We re-framed Code articles in terms of farmers' rights and drew on survey data, farmer focus group results, and direct observations of agrochemical stores in Ecuador and Peru to construct indicators reflecting respect for such rights. Use of highly (Ia and Ib) and moderately (II) hazardous pesticides was common. Worse indicators were observed in places with lower education, greater poverty, and more use of indigenous languages. Limited government enforcement capacity, social irresponsibility of the pesticide industry, and lack of farmers' knowledge of the Code were all factors impeding respect for farmers' rights. Addressing the power imbalance among social actors requires informed farmer and farmworker participation in monitoring adherence and active involvement of non-governmental organizations and municipal governments.
Fadya A Orozco; Donald C Cole; Greg Forbes; Jürgen Kroschel; Susitha Wanigaratne; Denis Arica
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't    
Journal Detail:
Title:  International journal of occupational and environmental health     Volume:  15     ISSN:  1077-3525     ISO Abbreviation:  Int J Occup Environ Health     Publication Date:    2009 Jul-Sep
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2009-08-04     Completed Date:  2009-09-29     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9505217     Medline TA:  Int J Occup Environ Health     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  255-68     Citation Subset:  IM    
Universidad Federal de Bahia, Instituto de Saúde Colectiva, Brazil.
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MeSH Terms
Agricultural Workers' Diseases / prevention & control*
Focus Groups
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
Health Surveys
Human Rights / legislation & jurisprudence,  standards*
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure / legislation & jurisprudence,  standards*
Pesticides / standards*
Protective Devices / standards,  utilization
Young Adult
Reg. No./Substance:

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