Document Detail


Molecular basis of essential amino acid transport from studies of insect nutrient amino acid transporters of the SLC6 family (NAT-SLC6).
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22230793     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Two protein families that represent major components of essential amino acid transport in insects have been identified. They are annotated as the SLC6 and SLC7 families of transporters according to phylogenetic proximity to characterized amino acid transporters (HUGO nomenclature). Members of these families have been identified as important apical and basolateral parts of transepithelial essential amino acid absorption in the metazoan alimentary canal. Synergistically, they play critical physiological roles as essential substrate providers to diverse metabolic processes, including generic protein synthesis. This review briefly clarifies the requirements for amino acid transport and a variety of amino acid transport mechanisms, including the aforementioned families. Further it focuses on the large group of Nutrient Amino acid Transporters (NATs), which comprise a recently identified subfamily of the Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporter family (NSS or SLC6). The first insect NAT, cloned from the caterpillar gut, has a broad substrate spectrum similar to mammalian B(0) transporters. Several new NAT-SLC6 members have been characterized in an effort to explore mechanisms for the essential amino acid absorption in model dipteran insects. The identification and functional characterization of new B(0)-like and narrow specificity transporters of essential amino acids in fruit fly and mosquitoes leads to a fundamentally important insight: that NATs evolved and act together as the integrated active core of a transport network that mediates active alimentary absorption and systemic distribution of essential amino acids. This role of NATs is projected from the most primitive prokaryotes to the most complex metazoan organisms, and represents an interesting platform for unraveling the molecular evolution of amino acid transport and modeling amino acid transport disorders. The comparative study of NATs elucidates important adaptive differences between essential amino acid transportomes of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms, outlining a new possibility for selective targeting of essential amino acid absorption mechanisms to control medically and economically important arthropods and other invertebrate organisms.
Authors:
Dmitri Y Boudko
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review     Date:  2012-01-02
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of insect physiology     Volume:  58     ISSN:  1879-1611     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Insect Physiol.     Publication Date:  2012 Apr 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-04-09     Completed Date:  2012-07-10     Revised Date:  2014-09-22    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  2985080R     Medline TA:  J Insect Physiol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  433-49     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Amino Acid Sequence
Amino Acid Transport Systems*
Amino Acids / metabolism*
Animals
Epithelium / metabolism
Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism
Insect Proteins / metabolism*
Insects / metabolism*
Molecular Sequence Data
Substrate Specificity
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
AI-30464/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; AI-52436/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R01 AI030464/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R01 AI030464-17/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R56 AI030464/AI/NIAID NIH HHS; R56 AI030464-18/AI/NIAID NIH HHS
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Amino Acid Transport Systems; 0/Amino Acids; 0/Insect Proteins
Comments/Corrections

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