Document Detail

Modulation of cardiorespiratory function mediated by the paraventricular nucleus.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20708107     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) coordinates autonomic and neuroendocrine systems to maintain homeostasis and to respond to stress. Neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic experiments have provided insight into the mechanisms by which the PVN acts. The PVN projects directly to the spinal cord and brainstem and, specifically, to sites that control cardio-respiratory function: the intermediolateral cell columns and phrenic motor nuclei in the spinal cord and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and the rostral nuclei in the ventral respiratory column (rVRC) in the brainstem. Activation of the PVN increases ventilation (both tidal volume and frequency) and blood pressure (both heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity). Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters including glutamate and GABA converge in the PVN to influence its neuronal activity. However, a tonic GABAergic input to the PVN directly modulates excitatory outflow from the PVN. Further, even within the PVN, microinjection of GABA(A) receptor blockers increases glutamate release suggesting an indirect mechanism by which GABA control contributes to PVN functions. PVN activity alters blood pressure and ventilation during various stresses, such as maternal separation, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), dehydration and hemorrhage. Among the several PVN neurotransmitters and neurohormones, vasopressin and oxytocin modulate ventilation and blood pressure. Here, we review our data indicating that increases in vasopressin and vasopressin type 1A (V(1A)) receptor signalling in the RVLM and rVRC are mechanisms increasing blood pressure and ventilation after exposure to CIH. That blockade of V(1A) receptors in the medulla normalizes baseline blood pressure as well as blunts PVN-evoked blood pressure and ventilatory responses in CIH-conditioned animals indicate the role of vasopressin in cardiorespiratory control. In summary, morphological and functional studies have found that the PVN integrates sensory input and projects to the sympathetic and respiratory control systems with descending projections to the medulla and spinal cord.
Prabha Kc; Thomas E Dick
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review     Date:  2010-08-11
Journal Detail:
Title:  Respiratory physiology & neurobiology     Volume:  174     ISSN:  1878-1519     ISO Abbreviation:  Respir Physiol Neurobiol     Publication Date:  2010 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-11-01     Completed Date:  2011-03-02     Revised Date:  2014-09-09    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101140022     Medline TA:  Respir Physiol Neurobiol     Country:  Netherlands    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  55-64     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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MeSH Terms
Arginine Vasopressin / metabolism
Cardiovascular Physiological Processes*
Glutamic Acid / metabolism
Neural Pathways / physiology
Neuronal Plasticity
Neurons / physiology
Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus / cytology,  physiology*
Respiratory Physiological Processes*
Sympathetic Nervous System / physiology
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / metabolism
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
113-79-1/Arginine Vasopressin; 3KX376GY7L/Glutamic Acid; 56-12-2/gamma-Aminobutyric Acid

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