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Modified hydra bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of multiple mycotoxins and predict the detoxification efficacy of a clay-based sorbent.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  23047854     Owner:  NLM     Status:  Publisher    
Food shortages and a lack of food supply regulation in developing countries often leads to chronic exposure of vulnerable populations to hazardous mixtures of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1) ) and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1) ). A refined calcium montmorillonite clay [i.e. uniform particle size NovaSil (UPSN)] has been reported to tightly bind these toxins, thereby decreasing bioavailability in humans and animals. Hence, our objectives in the present study were to examine the ability of UPSN to bind mixtures of AFB(1) and FB(1) at gastrointestinally relevant pH in vitro, and to utilize a rapid in vivo bioassay to evaluate AFB(1) and FB(1) toxicity and UPSN efficacy. Isothermal sorption data indicated tight AFB(1) binding to UPSN surfaces at both pH 2.0 and 6.5, but substantially more FB(1) bound at pH 2.0 than 6.5. Site-specific competition occurred between the toxins when exposed to UPSN in combination. Importantly, treatment with UPSN resulted in significant protection to mycotoxin-exposed hydra maintained at pH 6.9-7.0. Hydra were exposed to FB(1) , AFB(1) and FB(1) /AFB(1) combinations with and without UPSN. A toxic response over 92 h was rated based on morphology and mortality. Hydra assay results indicated a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 20 µg ml(-1) for AFB(1) , whereas the MEC for FB(1) was not reached. The MEC for co-exposure was 400 µg ml(-1) FB(1)  + 10 µg ml(-1) AFB(1) . This study demonstrates that UPSN sorbs both mycotoxins tightly at physiologically relevant pH levels, resulting in decreased bioavailability, and that a modified hydra bioassay can be used as an initial screen in vivo to predict efficacy of toxin-binding agents. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
K A Brown; T Mays; A Romoser; A Marroquin-Cardona; N J Mitchell; S E Elmore; T D Phillips
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Publication Detail:
Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE     Date:  2012-10-10
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of applied toxicology : JAT     Volume:  -     ISSN:  1099-1263     ISO Abbreviation:  J Appl Toxicol     Publication Date:  2012 Oct 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-10-10     Completed Date:  -     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8109495     Medline TA:  J Appl Toxicol     Country:  -    
Other Details:
Languages:  ENG     Pagination:  -     Citation Subset:  -    
Copyright Information:
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Veterinary Integrative Biosciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.
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