Document Detail

Modifications of the isolated frog heart preparation in Carl Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute: relevance for cardiovascular research.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10653935     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Carl Ludwig was the first physiologist to systematically study isolated organs (heart, muscle, kidney, liver, lung). In his Leipzig Physiological Institute, the isolated perfused frog heart preparation was established in 1866 by Elias Cyon. This preparation was subsequently subjected to various modifications, and many important observations were made by scientists such as Joseph Coats, Henry Pickering Bowditch, Luigi Luciani, Michael Joseph Rossbach, Hugo Kronecker and Otto Frank. The influence of filling pressure on contraction amplitude, the all-or-none law of the heart, the absolute refractory period, postextrasystolic potentiation, the staircase ('Treppe') phenomenon and the dependence of heart function on oxidative metabolism were discovered. The negative chronotropic and inotropic effects of vagus nerve stimulation were also first documented, and a model to induce arrhythmias was established. The isolated frog heart preparation became a widely used standard model for teaching and for basic cardiovascular research. Sidney Ringer discovered the essential role of calcium ions for heart function. Otto Loewi discovered the chemical transduction mechanism of the vagus with acetylcholine as transmitter. In more recent times, the cyclical changes in cAMP and cGMP that occur during the cardiac cycle were first described in the frog heart by Wollenberger and associates. Thus, the isolated perfused frog heart established and modified in Carl Ludwig's Leipzig Physiological Institute led not only to the discovery of basic phenomena, but also to observations that became the basis for concepts to be developed and elaborated later. Furthermore, the isolated perfused frog heart was the starting point for the development of the isolated mammalian heart in the retrogradely perfused, nonworking mode in the heart-lung modification and in the working heart preparation.
H G Zimmer
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Canadian journal of cardiology     Volume:  16     ISSN:  0828-282X     ISO Abbreviation:  Can J Cardiol     Publication Date:  2000 Jan 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2000-02-25     Completed Date:  2000-02-25     Revised Date:  2008-04-09    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8510280     Medline TA:  Can J Cardiol     Country:  CANADA    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  61-9     Citation Subset:  IM; Q    
Carl-Ludwig-Institute of Physiology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Cardiology / history*
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Physiology / history*
Personal Name Subject
Personal Name Subject:
C Ludwig

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