Document Detail

Modification of saccadic gain by reinforcement.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21525366     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Control of saccadic gain is often viewed as a simple compensatory process in which gain is adjusted over many trials by the postsaccadic retinal error, thereby maintaining saccadic accuracy. Here, we propose that gain might also be changed by a reinforcement process not requiring a visual error. To test this hypothesis, we used experimental paradigms in which retinal error was removed by extinguishing the target at the start of each saccade and either an auditory tone or the vision of the target on the fovea was provided as reinforcement after those saccades that met an amplitude criterion. These reinforcement procedures caused a progressive change in saccade amplitude in nearly all subjects, although the rate of adaptation differed greatly among subjects. When we reversed the contingencies and reinforced those saccades landing closer to the original target location, saccade gain changed back toward normal gain in most subjects. When subjects had saccades adapted first by reinforcement and a week later by conventional intrasaccadic step adaptation, both paradigms yielded similar degrees of gain changes and similar transfer to new amplitudes and to new starting positions of the target step as well as comparable rates of recovery. We interpret these changes in saccadic gain in the absence of postsaccadic retinal error as showing that saccade adaptation is not controlled by a single error signal. More generally, our findings suggest that normal saccade adaptation might involve general learning mechanisms rather than only specialized mechanisms for motor calibration.
Laurent Madelain; Céline Paeye; Josh Wallman
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2011-04-27
Journal Detail:
Title:  Journal of neurophysiology     Volume:  106     ISSN:  1522-1598     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Neurophysiol.     Publication Date:  2011 Jul 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2011-07-04     Completed Date:  2011-11-08     Revised Date:  2013-06-30    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0375404     Medline TA:  J Neurophysiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  219-32     Citation Subset:  IM    
Laboratoire Ureca, Unité de Formation et de Recherche de Psychologie, Université Ch De Gaulle Lille III, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.
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MeSH Terms
Adaptation, Physiological / physiology
Reinforcement (Psychology)*
Saccades / physiology*
Grant Support
1-R01-EY-019508/EY/NEI NIH HHS; RR-03060/RR/NCRR NIH HHS

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