Document Detail

Modes of retrotransposition of long interspersed element-1 by environmental factors.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  22666219     Owner:  NLM     Status:  PubMed-not-MEDLINE    
Approximately 42% of the human genome is composed of endogenous retroelements, and the major retroelement component, long interspersed element-1 (L1), comprises ∼17% of the total genome. A single human cell has more than 5 × 10(5) copies of L1, 80∼100 copies of which are competent for retrotransposition (RTP). Notably, L1 can induce RTP of other retroelements, such as Alu and SVA, and is believed to function as a driving force of evolution. Although L1-RTP during early embryogenesis has been highlighted in the literature, recent observations revealed that L1-RTP also occurs in somatic cells. However, little is known about how environmental factors induce L1-RTP. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the mechanism of L1-RTP in somatic cells. We have focused on the mode of L1-RTP that is dependent on the basic helix-loop-helix/per-arnt-sim (bHLH/PAS) family of transcription factors. Along with the proposed function of bHLH/PAS proteins in environmental adaptation, we discuss the functional linking of L1-RTP and bHLH/PAS proteins for environmental adaptation and evolution.
Yukihito Ishizaka; Noriyuki Okudaira; Masato Tamura; Kenta Iijima; Mari Shimura; Motohito Goto; Tadashi Okamura
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2012-05-31
Journal Detail:
Title:  Frontiers in microbiology     Volume:  3     ISSN:  1664-302X     ISO Abbreviation:  Front Microbiol     Publication Date:  2012  
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2012-06-05     Completed Date:  2012-10-02     Revised Date:  2013-08-13    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  101548977     Medline TA:  Front Microbiol     Country:  Switzerland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  191     Citation Subset:  -    
Department of Intractable Diseases, National Center for Global Health and Medicine Tokyo, Japan.
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