Document Detail

Moderate sedation for echocardiography of preschoolers.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20047024     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Preschoolers frequently require sedation for echocardiograms. This study compared various sedation drugs at the authors' institution, as well as the charges for moderate versus deep sedation. From 2001 to 2007, sedation was administered to 703 patients ages 2 to 4 years. Four drug regimens were used: chloral hydrate (CH), chloral hydrate with diphenhydramine (CH + D), chloral hydrate with hydroxyzine hydrochloride (CH + H), and midazolam. The mean onset of sedation was 37 min, and the mean duration of sedation was 47 min. The CH group fell asleep the most quickly (30 min; p < 0.001), and the CH + D patients experienced the most prolonged sedations (13%; p < 0.001). Studies were completed by 97% of the chloral hydrate group, 98% of the CH + D group, and 94% of the CH + H group compared with 66% of the midazolam group (p < 0.001). Complications (7.4%) were minor and not significant for any particular medication. The charges for moderate sedation averaged $709 compared with $3,628 for deep sedation. The findings demonstrated that chloral hydrate was the fastest-acting agent and had a high success rate with minimally prolonged sedations. The low complication rate for chloral hydrate, and the much lower cost for its use to induce moderate sedation have made chloral hydrate our preference for the echocardiographic sedation of preschoolers.
Carol Lafayette Roach; Nazia Husain; Jennifer Zabinsky; Elizabeth Welch; Ruchira Garg
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Comparative Study; Journal Article     Date:  2010-01-03
Journal Detail:
Title:  Pediatric cardiology     Volume:  31     ISSN:  1432-1971     ISO Abbreviation:  Pediatr Cardiol     Publication Date:  2010 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-04-23     Completed Date:  2010-08-03     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8003849     Medline TA:  Pediatr Cardiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  469-73     Citation Subset:  IM    
The Congenital Heart Institute at Miami Children's Hospital, 3100 SW 62nd Avenue, Miami, FL 33155-3009, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Anesthesia, General / economics
Child, Preschool
Chloral Hydrate / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  economics
Conscious Sedation* / adverse effects,  economics
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Diphenhydramine / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  economics
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Therapy, Combination
Echocardiography* / economics
Hydroxyzine / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  economics
Hypnotics and Sedatives / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  economics
Midazolam / administration & dosage,  adverse effects,  economics
Retrospective Studies
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Hypnotics and Sedatives; 302-17-0/Chloral Hydrate; 58-73-1/Diphenhydramine; 59467-70-8/Midazolam; 68-88-2/Hydroxyzine

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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