Document Detail


Modelling cortical cataractogenesis XXIV: uptake by the lens of glutathione injected into the rat.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  10617774     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
PURPOSE: Work of several groups including ours has shown that injection of glutathione may help to prevent the formation of cataract in the rat lens both in vitro and in vivo. These experiments were initiated to investigate the mechanism by which injected glutathione reaches the lens in vivo. The route is uncertain, but might involve either aqueous or vitreous humors, in contact with the lens anterior and posterior, respectively. Kannan's work has indicated that glutathione can be taken up ex vivo from the aqueous, by perfused isolated lens, but has not investigated; (1) whole animal glutathione injections, (2) the relative proportion of reduced and oxidized glutathione, and (3) the possibility that uptake can occur from the vitreous (in contrast to the aqueous humor) route. METHODS: 3H- or 35S-glutathione was injected into rats intraperitoneally and the radioactivity in serum and lens homogenates followed. RESULTS: The 3H-radioactivity reached a peak in the serum approximately 20-30 min after injection. Counts were also found in the lens, aqueous and vitreous humors. HPLC using a C18 Bondapak column (37 x 300 mm) indicated that the majority of the 3H-radioactivity in the lens was found in a component of a lower molecular weight than glutathione, but 8.1% of the counts occurred in the peak corresponding to reduced glutathione. Analysis of the unidentified radioactive component revealed a mobility the same as that of a dipeptide. Further analysis suggested this contained the amino acids cysteine and glycine bound in peptide linkage. These results suggest that glutathione may be degraded by the gamma-glutamyl cycle, and the action of transpeptidase produced cysteinylglycine. To confirm these results, similar experiments were undertaken using 35S-glutathione injection, to test whether a differently labelled form would be able to enter the lens. Homogenates prepared from the lens 20 min after 35S-glutathione injection were fractionated by HPLC. The glutathione peak contained 4.5% of the radioactivity in the lens extract. This amount was similar in quantity to the value for 3H-glutathione uptake by the lens. The average of the two values indicated that 6.3% of the total lens label was glutathione. The source of the labelled glutathione taken up by the lens was investigated by determining its concentration in the aqueous and vitreous humors and serum. The dipeptide appeared to be the major radiolabelled form occurring in the serum. This may explain its high level in the lens, as a result of uptake from other sources. Analysis using HPLC revealed that reduced glutathione (GSH) was the predominant chemical species of glutathione in the aqueous humor. In the vitreous humor, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was the major species. The ratio of GSSG:GSH in the vitreous varied between 2:1 and 4:1. CONCLUSIONS: Over a 4 h period the lens could obtain 12.3% of its total GSH from the injected GSH, using the specific activity of the labelled glutathione to calculate the actual uptake of glutathione by the lens, suggesting a half-time of 16.25 h for replenishing GSH from external sources. The probable route of glutathione entry was by blood plasma and aqueous since the specific activity of the vitreous humor was too low for the vitreous to be a possible source of the lens GSH.
Authors:
P J Stewart-DeHaan; T Dzialoszynski; J R Trevithick
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.     Date:  1999-12-22
Journal Detail:
Title:  Molecular vision     Volume:  5     ISSN:  1090-0535     ISO Abbreviation:  Mol. Vis.     Publication Date:  1999 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2000-01-12     Completed Date:  2000-01-12     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  9605351     Medline TA:  Mol Vis     Country:  UNITED STATES    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  37     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Animals
Aqueous Humor / metabolism
Cataract / metabolism*
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Glutathione / blood,  pharmacokinetics*
Lens, Crystalline / metabolism*
Male
Rats
Sodium Radioisotopes
Time Factors
Tritium
Vitreous Body / metabolism
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Sodium Radioisotopes; 10028-17-8/Tritium; 70-18-8/Glutathione

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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