Document Detail

Mitral annular calcium causing mitral stenosis.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20102954     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Mitral annular calcium (MAC) is a common finding at echocardiography, although it is an unusual cause of severe mitral stenosis. Although MAC is known to be associated with atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease, little is known about its natural history as affects mitral valve function. This report describes a cohort of 37 outpatients with severe MAC (>5 mm) of whom 32 were followed longitudinally with echocardiography (mean follow-up 2.6 + or - 1.6 years). Progression of the mitral valve gradient occurred in 16 of 32 (50%). There was wide variation in rate of progression with a few subjects demonstrating a rapid increase in gradient, up to 9 mm Hg/year. Progression of mitral valve gradient correlated with baseline gradient at rest and with severity of overall cardiac calcification as measured by a semiquantitative echocardiographic score. Age at index echocardiogram was inversely related to mitral valve gradient after baseline, suggesting that calcification may proceed at a greater rate in younger patients. In conclusion, although severe mitral stenosis is uncommon in patients with MAC, those with a pre-existing gradient at rest and severe overall cardiac calcification appear to be at greater risk for development of this disease state.
Gregg S Pressman; Ashish Agarwal; Leonard E Braitman; Salman M Muddassir
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article     Date:  2009-12-22
Journal Detail:
Title:  The American journal of cardiology     Volume:  105     ISSN:  1879-1913     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Cardiol.     Publication Date:  2010 Feb 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-01-27     Completed Date:  2010-03-01     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0207277     Medline TA:  Am J Cardiol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  389-91     Citation Subset:  AIM; IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Division of Cardiology, Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Aged, 80 and over
Calcinosis / complications*,  pathology,  ultrasonography
Cohort Studies
Disease Progression
Follow-Up Studies
Middle Aged
Mitral Valve / pathology,  ultrasonography
Mitral Valve Stenosis / etiology*,  pathology,  ultrasonography
Severity of Illness Index

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