Document Detail

Mirrors as environmental enrichment for African green monkeys.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15580583     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Stainless steel circular mirrors were employed in an enrichment plan for 105 singly housed male African green monkeys. We observed 25 randomly selected males to measure mirror use and to assess the mirrors' effectiveness as an enrichment item. We conducted additional mirror-use surveys on all 105 males using fingerprint accumulation as an indicator (rated on a scale of 0 to 4). Use was defined as either being in contact with the mirror (contact use (CU)) or looking directly into the mirror without contact (non-contact use (NC)). Mirror-use data were collected 10 months after the initial introduction of the mirrors and again at 16 months. The two time points were compared by paired t-tests. No significant difference in use was found between the two data collection points. On average, the monkeys used the mirrors 5.2% of the total time intervals recorded (approximately 3 min/hr). Results from the five fingerprint-accumulation surveys showed that 102 of 105 males (97%) had CU with their mirrors over the survey points. Based on the sustained use of the mirrors over a 6-month period, we concluded that the mirrors were an effective enrichment tool that the vast majority of our monkeys routinely used. Habituation did not appear to occur even a year after the mirrors were introduced.
Heather G Harris; Amanda J Edwards
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.    
Journal Detail:
Title:  American journal of primatology     Volume:  64     ISSN:  0275-2565     ISO Abbreviation:  Am. J. Primatol.     Publication Date:  2004 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-12-13     Completed Date:  2005-02-25     Revised Date:  2007-11-14    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8108949     Medline TA:  Am J Primatol     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  459-67     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Animal Resources Program, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Blvd., Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Behavior, Animal*
Cercopithecus aethiops*
Housing, Animal
Time Factors
Grant Support

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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