Document Detail

Mirror movements in healthy humans across the lifespan: effects of development and ageing.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  21039436     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
AIM: mirror movements are a transient phenomenon during childhood, which decrease in intensity with motor development. An increasing inhibitory competence resulting in the ability of movement lateralization is thought to be the underlying mechanism. We aimed to quantify unintended mirror movements systematically across the lifespan and to investigate the influences of age, sex, handedness, and task frequency.
METHOD: a total of 236 participants (127 females, 109 males; 216 right-handed, 20 left-handed; age range 3-96y, median 25y 8mo) first performed four clinical routine tests while mirror movements were rated by the observer. They were then asked to hold a force transducer in each hand between the thumb and index finger and to perform oscillatory grip force changes in one hand, while the other hand had to prevent the force transducer from dropping.
RESULTS: age showed a strong nonlinear effect on the mirror-movement ratio (the amplitude ratio of the mirror and active hand, adjusted by the respective maximum grip force). Initially, there was a steep decline in the mirror-movement ratio during childhood and adolescence, followed by a gradual rise during adulthood. Males had lower mirror-movement ratios than females. The high-frequency condition triggered lower mirror-movement ratios. No significant differences of mirror movements between dominant and non-dominant hand, or left- and right-handed participants, were found.
INTERPRETATION: this study provides, for the first time to our knowledge, normative values of mirror movements across the lifespan that can aid differentiation between physiological and pathological mirror movements.
Inga Koerte; Lara Eftimov; Ruediger Paul Laubender; Olaf Esslinger; Andreas Sebastian Schroeder; Birgit Ertl-Wagner; Ute Wahllaender-Danek; Florian Heinen; Adrian Danek
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't     Date:  2010-10-11
Journal Detail:
Title:  Developmental medicine and child neurology     Volume:  52     ISSN:  1469-8749     ISO Abbreviation:  Dev Med Child Neurol     Publication Date:  2010 Dec 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-12-23     Completed Date:  2011-01-31     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0006761     Medline TA:  Dev Med Child Neurol     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1106-12     Citation Subset:  IM    
Institute of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Campus, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany.
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MeSH Terms
Age Factors
Aged, 80 and over
Aging / physiology*
Child, Preschool
Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted
Functional Laterality
Hand / innervation,  physiology
Hand Strength / physiology
Human Development*
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Movement / physiology*
Psychomotor Performance / physiology*
Sex Factors
Young Adult
Comment In:
Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010 Dec;52(12):1077-8   [PMID:  21175463 ]

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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