Document Detail

Mineralocorticoid antagonists treatment versus surgery in primary aldosteronism.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  20119883     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Recent evidence indicates a greater frequency of primary aldosteronism (PA) among patients with hypertension than the previously accepted prevalence. PA was once considered a relatively benign form of hypertension associated with low incidence of organ complications. Recent views, however, suggest that long-term exposure to increased aldosterone levels might result in cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic sequelae that occur independently of the blood pressure level. Cross-sectional comparisons with patients with essential hypertension have demonstrated that patients with PA are at higher risk of cardiovascular events, have more frequent left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction, have greater urinary albumin losses as a marker of a hemodynamic intrarenal adaptation, and are insulin resistant. Some of these findings have been corroborated by the results of short-term, follow-up studies where it was shown that unilateral adrenalectomy or treatment with mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are effective in correcting hypertension and hypokalemia. Normalization of blood pressure and correction of hypokalemia, however, are not the only goals in managing PA and effective prevention of organ complications is mandatory in these patients. The relative efficacy of adrenalectomy and MR antagonists, in the long-term, on the cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic outcomes still needs evaluation, being the aldosterone-induced tissue damage the main factor that could justify the cost of increasing efforts in screening of disease and differentiation of subtypes. In this narrative review, we summarize the results obtained with either surgical or medical treatment of PA and outline the findings of long-term, prospective studies on the effects of treatment on cardiovascular and renal outcomes and on insulin sensitivity.
C Catena; G Colussi; A Di Fabio; M Valeri; L Marzano; A Uzzau; L A Sechi
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review     Date:  2010-01-29
Journal Detail:
Title:  Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme     Volume:  42     ISSN:  1439-4286     ISO Abbreviation:  Horm. Metab. Res.     Publication Date:  2010 Jun 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2010-05-26     Completed Date:  2010-09-08     Revised Date:  -    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0177722     Medline TA:  Horm Metab Res     Country:  Germany    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  440-5     Citation Subset:  IM    
Copyright Information:
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.
Department of Experimental and Clinical Pathology and Medicine, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
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MeSH Terms
Adrenal Glands / surgery
Aldosterone Antagonists / therapeutic use*
Cardiovascular Diseases / complications,  therapy
Endocrine Surgical Procedures / methods*
Hyperaldosteronism / complications,  drug therapy*,  surgery*
Kidney Diseases / complications,  therapy
Metabolic Diseases / complications,  therapy
Mineralocorticoids / antagonists & inhibitors*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Aldosterone Antagonists; 0/Mineralocorticoids

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