Document Detail

Mineralization of the basal ganglia: implications for neuropsychiatry, pathology and neuroimaging.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  14572624     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
This article examines the evidence for and against the existence of basal ganglia mineralization as a defined clinico-pathological entity. In reviewing the literature on basal ganglia mineralization, this article emphasizes evidence derived from different neuroimaging modalities, genetics, metabolic studies, postmortem series and their possible neuropsychiatric correlates. Relevant articles were collected through Medline and Index Medicus searches. Researchers have encountered multiple difficulties in accepting basal ganglia mineralization as a distinct entity. This syndrome lacks set clinical criteria or a unique etiology; not surprisingly, numerous articles have applied varied definitions. Because many of the reported cases have not been examined postmortem, both the extent and nature of their mineralization remains uncertain. Furthermore, researchers have considered small foci of basal ganglia mineralization a normal phenomenon of aging. However, when brain deposits are extensive, they are associated with a set of age-dependent, progressive clinical symptoms. They include cognitive impairment, extrapyramidal symptoms and psychosis. Most cases are related to abnormalities of calcium metabolism, but rare familial cases of idiopathic origin have been reported. Overabundant mineralization of the brain is judged pathological based on its amount, distribution and accompanying clinical symptoms. Although its relation with calcium dysregulation is well known, modern studies have emphasized abnormalities of iron and dopamine metabolism. The authors suggest that these metabolic abnormalities may link basal ganglia mineralization to psychotic symptomatology.
Manuel F Casanova; Julio M Araque
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  Psychiatry research     Volume:  121     ISSN:  0165-1781     ISO Abbreviation:  Psychiatry Res     Publication Date:  2003 Nov 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-10-23     Completed Date:  2004-04-21     Revised Date:  2008-04-17    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  7911385     Medline TA:  Psychiatry Res     Country:  Ireland    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  59-87     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.
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MeSH Terms
Basal Ganglia / pathology
Basal Ganglia Diseases / diagnosis*,  genetics,  pathology
Calcinosis / diagnosis*,  genetics,  pathology
Dementia / diagnosis*,  genetics,  pathology
Diagnostic Imaging*
Dopamine / metabolism
Iron / metabolism
Minerals / metabolism*
Grant Support
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Minerals; 7439-89-6/Iron

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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