Document Detail

Milk drinking, ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke II. Evidence from cohort studies.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  15116074     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
OBJECTIVE: Milk consumption is considered a risk factor for vascular disease on the basis of relevant biological mechanisms and data from ecological studies. The aim was to identify published prospective studies of milk drinking and vascular disease, and conduct an overview. DESIGN: The literature was searched for cohort studies, in which an estimate of the consumption of milk, or the intake of calcium from dairy sources, has been related to incident vascular disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke. RESULTS: In total, 10 studies were identified. Their results show a high degree of consistency in the reported risk for heart disease and stroke, all but one study suggesting a relative risk of less than one in subjects with the highest intakes of milk. A pooled estimate of relative odds in these subjects, relative to the risk in subjects with the lowest consumption, is 0.87 (95% CI 0.74-1.03) for ischaemic heart disease and 0.83 (0.77-0.90) for ischaemic stroke. The odds ratio for any vascular event is 0.84 (0.78-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Cohort studies provide no convincing evidence that milk is harmful. While there still could be residual confounding from unidentified factors, the studies, taken together, suggest that milk drinking may be associated with a small but worthwhile reduction in heart disease and stroke risk. SPONSORSHIP: The University of Wales College of Medicine and Bristol University. Current support is from the Food Standards Agency.
P C Elwood; J E Pickering; J Hughes; A M Fehily; A R Ness
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  European journal of clinical nutrition     Volume:  58     ISSN:  0954-3007     ISO Abbreviation:  Eur J Clin Nutr     Publication Date:  2004 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2004-04-29     Completed Date:  2005-03-03     Revised Date:  2006-11-15    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  8804070     Medline TA:  Eur J Clin Nutr     Country:  England    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  718-24     Citation Subset:  IM    
Department of Epidemiology, Statistics and Public Health, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.
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MeSH Terms
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Ischemia / epidemiology*
Middle Aged
Milk / adverse effects*
Myocardial Ischemia / epidemiology*
Odds Ratio
Risk Factors

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine

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