Document Detail


Micronutrients and fetal growth.
MedLine Citation:
PMID:  12730494     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE    
Abstract/OtherAbstract:
Fetal undernutrition affects large numbers of infants in developing countries, with adverse consequences for their immediate survival and lifelong health. It manifests as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), defined as birth weight <10th percentile, which probably underestimates the number failing to achieve full growth potential. Birth weight is a crude measure of the dynamic process of fetal growth and does not capture effects of fetal undernutrition on body composition and the development of specific tissues. The link between maternal nutrition and fetal nutrition is indirect. The fetus is nourished by a complex supply line that includes the mother's diet and absorption, endocrine status and metabolism, cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy and placental function. Micronutrients are essential for growth, and maternal micronutrient deficiency, frequently multiple in developing countries, may be an important cause of IUGR. Supplementation of undernourished mothers with micronutrients has several benefits but there is little hard evidence of improved fetal growth. However, this has been inadequately tested. Most trials have only used single micronutrients and many were inconclusive because of methodological problems. Several food-based studies (some uncontrolled) suggest benefits from improving maternal dietary quality with micronutrient-dense foods. One trial of a multivitamin supplement (HIV-positive mothers, Tanzania) showed increased birth weight and fewer fetal deaths. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials of adequate sample size and including measures of effectiveness are needed in populations at high risk of micronutrient deficiency and IUGR and should include food-based interventions and better measurements of fetal growth, maternal metabolism, and long-term outcomes in the offspring.
Authors:
Caroline H D Fall; Chittaranjan S Yajnik; Shobha Rao; Anna A Davies; Nick Brown; Hannah J W Farrant
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Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review    
Journal Detail:
Title:  The Journal of nutrition     Volume:  133     ISSN:  0022-3166     ISO Abbreviation:  J. Nutr.     Publication Date:  2003 May 
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2003-05-05     Completed Date:  2003-06-13     Revised Date:  2011-11-18    
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0404243     Medline TA:  J Nutr     Country:  United States    
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  1747S-1756S     Citation Subset:  IM    
Affiliation:
MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, Hampshire SO16 6YD, United Kingdom. chdf@mrc.soton.ac.uk
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MeSH Terms
Descriptor/Qualifier:
Developing Countries
Embryonic and Fetal Development / physiology*
Female
Fetal Death
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Micronutrients*
Nutrition Disorders / physiopathology*
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications / physiopathology*
Pregnancy Outcome*
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
World Health
Grant Support
ID/Acronym/Agency:
059609//Wellcome Trust
Chemical
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Micronutrients

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine


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